Medical genetics

A Dominant-Negative Effect With TP53 Mutations

The study find that  A large team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in the U.S. and one in Germany has found evidence that makes a case for a dominant-negative effect with TP53 mutations. In their paper published in the journal Science, the group describes their study of such gene mutations and their work; which involved editing genes to test theorized outcomes, and what they learned. David Philip Lane with the Karolinska Institutet has published a Perspective piece in the same journal issue discussing the work; along with issues involved in reconciling the findings with those found in previous studies.
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General surgery

Breast Cancer Face Important Decisions About Their Surgical Treatment

The researches find that the Women newly diagnosed with breast cancer face important decisions about their surgical treatment. For many, those decisions are guide by cost. In a survey of more than 600 women with a history of breast cancer; 43% of respondents reported they considered costs when making treatment decisions; and one third reported that their cancer treatment created a financial burden that in some cases was catastrophic.
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The Compartments And Complexity In The Eukaryotic Cell

The Compartments And Complexity In The Eukaryotic Cell

The study showing the compartments and complexity in the cell; this showing the closer look at the subcellular distribution of the proteins; and metabolic intermediates in a model plant. The results of the study provide new insights into the dynamics of metabolic processes in cells. Eukaryotic cells in this context; plant cells contain a variety of subcellular compartments in which specific sets of enzymatic reactions take place.
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Protein Combination Revealing New Drug Targeting For Viral Infections

Protein Combination Revealing New Drug Targeting For Viral Infections

According to the study deadly protein combination revealing new drug targeting for viral infections; these finding that how the two highly lethal viruses have greater pathogenic potential when their proteins are combining. Co-infections with these two viruses can occur in the same host, but we didn't know what would happen if their proteins combined. We discovered that not only could they work together, they can work even better than they do separately.
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Encapsulating Two Drugs In Same Nanovector Improve Drug Delivery

The study find that the Encapsulating two drugs with different properties into nanovesicles surrounded by antibodies can greatly improve their delivery and efficacy, according to a study led by Xavier Fernández Busquets, director of the joint Nanomalaria unit at the Institute for Bionengineering of Catalonia (IBEC); and the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal), an institution supported by "la Caixa".
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Risk For Diabetes Report Being Informed By Provider

The researches find that the patients with undiagnosed prediabetes are told that they are at high risk for diabetes, according to a study published in the July issue of Clinical Diabetes. Arch G. Mainous, Ph.D., from the University of Florida in Gainesville, and colleagues analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2015 to 2016) to identify previously undiagnosed participants who were diagnosed with prediabetes or borderline diabetes as a result of a study-related examination. High risk for diabetes The researchers found that of the 4,538 participants, 25% had laboratory glucose results meeting the criteria for a prediabetes diagnosis. Of these, 75.4% were unaware that they had the condition. Among those with undiagnosed prediabetes; 30.5% believed that they were at increased risk of diabetes; but only 12.8% of them report being tell by a health care provider of their increase risk. Therefore Independent predictors of higher perception of diabetes risk included having been tell by a health care provider (odds ratio [OR], 7.00); having a family history of diabetes (OR, 4.48); being younger (defined as 20 to 44 years old; OR, 3.03), and having been tell by a health care provider that they are overweight (OR, 1.85). "Diabetes prevention requires improved patient-centered care, which begins with the delivery of adequate information to patients;" the authors write. Diabetes mellitus often referred to simply as diabetes's a disease in which the body does not produce  enough, or properly respond to; insulin, a hormone produced in the pancreas. Insulin is need to turn sugar and other food into energy. In diabetes, the body either doesn't make enough insulin or can't use its own insulin as well as it should; or both. This causes sugar to accumulate in the blood, often leading to various complications. Hormone produced in the pancreas The American Diabetes Association reported in 2009 that there are 23.6 million children and adults in the United States 7.8% of the population, who have diabetes. While an estimate 17.9 million in the US alone have been diagnose with diabetes; nearly one in four (5.7 million) diabetics are unaware that they have the disease. Many types of diabetes are recognize: The principal three are: All forms of diabetes have been treatable since insulin became medically available in 1921, but there is no cure for the common types except a pancreas transplant; but although gestational diabetes usually resolves after delivery. Therefore  Diabetes and its treatments can cause many complications. Acute complications including hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, or nonketotic hyperosmolar coma may occur if the disease is not adequately controlled. Because Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, chronic renal failure; Because retinal damage, which can lead to blindness, several types of nerve damage, and microvascular damage, which may cause erectile dysfunction and poor wound healing.

Collaborative Care Reduces Health Care Costs And Improves Patient

The study find that the Lowering costs and improving patient outcomes are common goals for most health care providers. A new study from Creighton University School of Medicine and Center for Inter professional Practice, Education and Research, published Aug. 12 in the Annals of Family Medicine, yielded a reduction in health care costs in an especially vulnerable group: high risk patients. Therefore The study, "Lessons From Practice Transformation;" involved patients at a family practice clinic at CHI Creighton University Medical Center-University Campus near downtown. Most health care providers The clinic was specifically designed around something call the inter professional collaborative practice (ICPC) model. Our study demonstrate that inter professional education and collaborative practice provided in a primary care residency-based program are associated with reductions of 16.7% in emergency room visits; 17.7% in hospitalizations, 0.8%in hemoglobin A1c levels, and 48.2% in total patient charges." Thomas P Guck, PhD; psychologist and professor in Family Medicine, Creighton University; and lead author of the study Guck said these results came about primarily because, They are teaching future providers to work in teams;" said Guck. To get an idea of what that teamwork looks like; walk into the downtown area Creighton family practice clinic. There are patients checking in, some are sitting down waiting to be see, nothing appears out of the ordinary. Behind the patient rooms is where the transformation begins. There's a medical assistant working on a computer next to a third-year family practice medical resident. Creighton family practice clinic A faculty physician is consulting with a nurse about a patient, right next to the social worker speaking with an occupational therapist. Because  There's a pharmacy next to the waiting room; and ran occupational and physical therapy gym on the first floor. The patient has access to all of these services and clinicians in one place. It is know as the inter professional collaborative practice (IPCP) model. There are plenty of studies that show inter professional collaborative care can lead to better, less costly outcomes in specific patient populations, like those with diabetes or heart disease; but until now no one has studied whether this model of care offers these same improvements in a diverse patient population like what you see in Family Practice. But the Creighton study showed a nearly 50% reduction in patient charges in one year. "That's a cost savings of more than $4 million," said Joy Doll, OTD, occupational therapist, executive director of Creighton's Center for Inter professional Practice, Education and Research (CIPER), and one of the study's authors. Doll said those savings came about mostly because there are far fewer visits to the emergency room and patients are hospitalize less often.

PE Admissions Up But Short-Term Mortality Down

The researches find that the rate of hospitalization for pulmonary  embolization  PE among older US adults increased during the past 15 years, according to a study published online August 13 in JAMA. However, at the same time, "LOS [length of stay], readmission rates, and short-term and 1-year mortality rates declined," write Behnood Bikdeli, MD, from Columbia University Medical Center, New York City, and colleagues. Significant progress in the field of PE during; the past 2 decades has led to advances in its diagnosis and management that enable earlier patient discharge. Hospitalization for pulmonary With this in mind; Bikdeli and colleagues conducted a study to investigate how these advances have affected outcomes in older patients with PE. They analyzed Medicare fee-for-service claims data from 810,969 patients who had received a principal discharge diagnosis of PE from 1999 through 2015. In particular; the researchers examined hospitalization rates per 100,000 beneficiary-years, LOS, all-cause 30-day readmissions, and all-cause in-hospital, 30-day, and 1-year mortality. The adjusted PE hospitalization rate rose from 120.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 120.0 – 120.0) in 1999 to 198.0 (95% CI, 194.4 – 201.6) in 2010; and then fell to 187.2 (95% CI, 184.0 – 190.4) in 2015. By contrast, LOS decreased during this time, falling from 7.7 days in 1999 to 5.0 days in 2015 (P < .001 for trend). Similarly, adjusted 30-day readmission rates fell from 15.5% to 13.6% (P = .005), as did adjusted 30-day (from 12.7% to 9.4%) and 1-year (from 26.3% to 24.1%) mortality rates (P < .001 for trend). Analyzed Medicare fee-for-service Various factors may have contributed to these changes over time, the authors say; such as the use of CT pulmonary angiography for diagnosis, which allows detection of less severe PEs. Other factors include advances that have facilitated more prompt diagnosis and treatment of PE; and those that have improved the care of older adults with PE. "Additional studies are require to determine the reasons behind the observe trends and strategies that may mitigate the residual risk of death or recurrence in older adults;" Bikdeli and colleagues conclude. The study is support by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Several authors have reported relevant financial relationships, which are listed in the original article. pulmonary vascular tree processes the entire volume of the body's blood circulation. This system is affected primarily and secondarily by cardiac and noncardiac disorders. Its relative inaccessibility for physical examination requires investigation with other means, primarily radiologic examinations. Radiologic modalities used for assessment include lung scintigraphy, digital subtraction pulmonary angiography (DSPA); pulmonary computed tomography angiography (PCTA), and pulmonary magnetic resonance angiography (PMRA).

Wiggling It Beats A Path For A Better Performance At School

Marching, wiggling and tapping a beat aids young children to develop their self-regulation skills; and improve school readiness, as shown in newly-published QUT early childhood research. Associate Professor Kate Williams designed a low-cost preschool program focussing; exclusively on rhythm and movement activities linked; to pathways in the brain to support attentional and emotional development. "Think heads, shoulders, knees; and toes but do the actions backwards while you sing forwards. But it tricks the brain into gear," Assoc Prof Williams said. The Queensland study; involving 113 children from lower socioeconomic communities; measured the effectiveness of the program to boost self-regulation skills. Predictor of school readiness "Being able to control your own emotions, cognition and behaviours is an important predictor of school readiness; and early school achievement," Assoc Prof Williams said. "But the aim is for regular sessions to introduce into daily activities of young children to help support their attentional and emotional regulation skills; inhibition and working memory. But they want all early childhood teachers to feel confident to run these fun and important activities." However, the findings have published in the international peer-reviewed journal Psychology of Music. The study is a unique investigation about preschool children and the application of a rhythm; and movement program to address socioeconomic-related school readiness and achievement gaps. Assoc Prof Williams said differences in neurological processes can produce educational inequalities; for young children who experience disadvantage. But it is identified by UNICEF as an international priority. The study recognises what Assoc Prof Williams describes as the 'musician advantage' enhanced neural plasticity and executive functioning particularly among children given formal musical instruction. "The children who have music lessons from a young age are often from families who can afford them," she said. Musician advantage miss out "Howeever, he problem is that the children who most need the musician advantage miss out because it is not affordable for all families to access highly quality music programs". She said the benefits of early shared book reading between parents and children have long been established. Another recent Australian study, led by Assoc Prof Williams, was the first to show that early shared music activities in the home also contributed to positive development. The preschool program involved group sessions for 30 minutes twice a week across eight weeks, with stages becoming more challenging to stimulate change and development in self-regulation skills. However, these early findings suggest that a rhythm and movement intervention has the potential to support the development of self-regulation skills in preschool; however, further research is required.

Fidgeting Activity Have “Meaningful” Biological Or Health Effects

The researches find that the often told off for fidgeting but a study involving the University of Strathclyde has found that it could help them to use up energy amounting to nearly 3kg body weight a year. Forty children took it in turns to spend just over an hour in an observation room and had their calorie expenditure measured while they took part in a range of activities; including watching television, playing with toys on the floor; drawing and coloring. The Fidgeting Activity Researchers recorded their shifts in posture; which took forms including sitting, standing and lying down. These shifts are find to have had a noticeable impact on the activity energy expenditure (AEE) of the children; who are mostly age between four and five. The researchers conclude that such fidgeting activity could have "meaningful" biological or health effects in early childhood. While the individual fidgeting acts were in themselves small; their cumulative effect over the longer term  have a significant impact on body fat levels. The study is publish in the journal PLOS One. It was carried out in Australia and also involve researchers from two Australian institutions, Deakin University in Melbourne and the University of Wollongong. Professor John Reilly; of Strathclyde's  School of Psychological Sciences & Health; was a partner in the study. He said: "There's a growing scientific interest in the benefits of breaking up sedentary behavior with spells of standing or walking but there has been very little research  into the energy used in changes in posture also known as "fidgeting." Psychological Sciences & Health "Fidgeting in adults has been find to consist mainly of things like tapping hands or feet but children make bigger whole-body movements when they fidget and they also fidget more often than adults. "Understanding the relationship between these transitions in posture and expenditure of energy; could help to explain differences between the amounts of energy children use. This is a comparatively small-scale study but could be significant when the amount of time in which children are sedentary adds up over days; weeks and months. The difference between children who fidgeted the most and fidget the least could; for a child weighing 20kg, equate to nearly 3kg of body weight a year. "However, children need to be physically active; and fidgeting is no substitute for this." The highest number of posture transitions are see while the children are playing with toys and the lowest while they are watching television. There are no statistically significant differences between boys and girls for the number of transitions.

Basic Effects Of Coaches Emotional Expression At Halftime

Coaches; It's a staple of every sports movie: The team is down at the half, and the coach gives an inspirational locker room speech think Gene Hackman in Hoosiers, Billy Bob Thornton in Friday Night Lights leading the team to come roaring back to victory. In a new paper published in the Journal of Applied Psychology, Berkeley Haas Prof. Emeritus Barry Staw and two colleagues, Katherine DeCelles and Peter de Goey, test that question where it counts: the basketball court. Their analysis of hundreds of half-time speeches and final scores from high school and college games find that coaches do better when they shelve the happy talk and bring down the hammer. In fact, the researchers found a significant relationship between how negative a coach was at half-time and how well the team played in the second half: The more negativity, the more the team outscored the opposition. "That was even true if the team was already ahead at halftime," Staw says. Effects of coaches The results showed two basic effects of coaches' emotional expression at halftime. First, there was a strong and clear relationship between negative half-time speeches and higher scores in the second half. That is, expressing negative emotion at halftime help teams perform better in the second half. However, at the most intense end of negative expression; the researchers found somewhat of a reversal of the effect. "They're talking Bobby Knight level; when you're throwing chairs," Staw says, a reference to the notoriously volatile former Indiana University coach. The researchers also conducted a controlled laboratory experiment; in which they play select pep talks for participants; also ask them how motivated or unmotivated they felt after hearing them. Again, Staw, DeCelles, and de Goey find that negative speeches could have a motivating effect; but that the effects of such negativity turned downward rather quickly. In other words, the results showed a more traditional bell curve; where motivation drop off when the coaches became too angry or too negative. Emotion motivational tool Staw and his colleagues conclude that negative emotion can be underrated as a motivational tool. By expressing anger or dissatisfaction, a leader signals to followers; that their performance is not at the level where it should be; potentially driving them to greater effort. "We sometimes strip content from emotion, treating it as simply positive or negative expression; but emotion often has a message carried along with it that causes people to listen and pay attention, as leaders try to correct or redirect behavior," Staw says. However, in some short-term instances, getting a boost in performance is critical, and the situation may parallel the do-or-die moment at half-time in a basketball game, where expressing anger and disappointment can lead a team to renewed effort and improved results. "Our results do not give leaders a license to be a jerk," Staw says, "but when you have a very important project or a merger that needs to get done over the weekend, negative emotions can be a very useful arrow to have in your quiver to drive greater performance."

Increased Physical Activity To Prevention, Treatment Of Depression

Exercise training and increased physical activity are effective for both prevention and treatment of depression; concludes a research review in the August issue of Current Sports Medicine Reports, official journal of the American College of Sports Medicine. The journal is published in the Lippincott portfolio by Wolters Kluwer. "The evidence of the use of physical activity and exercise for the management of depression is substantial and growing fast,"comment Felipe Barretto Schuch, PhD, of Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Brazil, and Brendon Stubbs, PhD, of King's College London, lead authors of the special 'Exercise Is Medicine' article. "Despite this substantial evidence, the incorporation of exercise; which as a key component in treatment is often inconstant and often given a low priority." Physical activity reduces Depression is a major health problem worldwide, with an enormous impact on mental and physical health for individuals and high costs for society. Current treatments focus on antidepressant mediations and psychotherapy; each of which can help people but have important limitations. For example, only about half of people taking antidepressants will have a clinically significant response; also not all people will respond to psychotherapy. "There is growing recognition that lifestyle behaviors; such as physical activity; also exercise partially contribute to the risk of developing depression and can be useful strategies for treating depression; reducing depressive symptoms, improving quality of life, and improving health outcomes," according to the authors. They provide an update overview of the growing evidence on the benefits of exercise for depression. Drs. Schuch and Stubbs and colleagues analyzed pool data on 49 prospective studies; including nearly 267,000 participants. This meta-analysis found physical activity reduces the odds of developing depression by 17%, after adjustment for other factors. The protective effect was significant in all countries and across patient subgroups. Single exercise session Physical activity is also an effective treatment for depression some studies have show that a single exercise session; which can reduce symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder. The authors perform another meta analysis of 25 randomize trials; which nearly 1,500 people with depression were assigned to exercise training or comparison groups. The results suggest a "very large and significant antidepressant effect" of exercise. Research is ongoing to identify how the antidepressant response to exercise works. Potential mechanisms involving exercise induce changes on inflammation, oxidative stress; also neuronal regeneration have been propose. Yet, research investigating the why and how exercise reduces symptoms is in its early stages; also the findings are not conclusive. In any group of patients, starting and sustaining an exercise program can be challenging. Some reports have suggested that the key to successful exercise therapy for depression is "autonomous motivation": physical activity should be as enjoyable as possible, leading people to exercise for its own sake. Supervision by health and fitness professionals or social support from friends and family may also increase the chances of success. Even though the evidence strongly supports the benefits of exercise, it still isn't routinely included in clinical recommendations for prevention and treatment of depression.