Gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal damage and immune dysfunction drive chronic inflammation and microbial translocation in HIV infection; which predict and likely contribute to non-infectious comorbidities and mortality. Although long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) partially restores mucosal damage; a degree of mucosal immune dysfunction and inflammation persists and is with morbidities and mortality.
The increased survival of white blood cells called neutrophils is with alterations in the intestinal microbiome of HIV-infected individuals; according to a study published April 11 in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Nichole Klatt of the University of Miami, and colleagues. Moreover, the findings suggest that Lactobacillus bacteria; which are commonly in probiotics, may reduce neutrophil lifespan, and could an effective therapeutic strategy to reduce intestinal inflammation in HIV-infected individuals.
These data were so striking because they clearly implicate neutrophil lifespan; as a potential target to reduce intestinal inflammation in HIV infection. “Neutrophil lifespan is increased in many different chronic diseases, and strategies targeting neutrophil lifespan are being investigated to reduce neutrophil-driven inflammation. However, this connection had not previously been investigated in the context of HIV infection.”
“They think one of the most exciting and interesting findings was that Lactobacillus species can override neutrophil survival signals; reduce neutrophil lifespan and numbers,” states first author Tiffany Hensley-McBain. “Overall, they believe these data have important and widespread implications for discovering new therapeutics for neutrophil-driven inflammation; is not only HIV infection, but many chronic inflammatory diseases.”