The study explaining that a new vaccine targets killer disease tuberculosis; There is only one existing vaccine for TB and it is not effective in adults. As new type of vaccine targeting tuberculosis (TB), the world’s top infectious disease killer in humans. Tuberculosis is a huge world-wide health problem. It is causing by a bacteria that infects the lungs after it’s inhaling; is contagious and results in approximately 1.6 million deaths per year globally.
Two peptides (small proteins) which are normally finding in tuberculosis bacteria were synthesizing; and then bound extremely tightly to an adjuvant (a stimulant) that was able to kick-start the immune response in the lungs. Showing that when this vaccine was inhaled into the lungs, it stimulated the type of T cells known to protect against TB.
Existing vaccine for tuberculosis
Importantly, we then demonstrated that this type of vaccine could successfully protect against experimental airborne TB infection. There currently exists only one vaccine for TB (known as BCG) and this is only effective in reducing the risk of disease for infants. But it failing to prevent infection or provide long term protection in older individuals; and it is not considering suitable for use in individuals with an impaired immune system. More effective vaccines are urgently requiring to save lives.
The important thing is that the vaccine actually gets to the lungs because that’s where you first see TB. Ultimately, we would love to see a form of this vaccine available for use in an easily inhaled nasal spray which would provide life long TB protection. Although this outcome is still many years away, we are certainly heading in the right direction.
Global public health
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a staggering burden on global public health. Novel preventative tools are desperately needing to reach the targets of the WHO post-2015 End-TB Strategy. Peptide or protein-based subunit vaccines offer potential as safe and effective generators of protection; and enhancement of local pulmonary immunity may be achieving by mucosal delivery.
But the study next steps will be to determine if our synthetic vaccine; that can be developing into a form suitable for use in humans. There are an estimated two billion individuals carrying TB globally; and up to 10% of these individuals develop the disease in their lifetime. More than 50% of TB cases occur in the Asia Pacific region. Mucosal, but not peripheral vaccination, provided substantial protection against Mtb infection, emphasizing the importance of delivery route for optimal efficacy.