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AIDS

Treatment Prevents Sexual HIV Transmission Among Gay Men

HIV-suppressing medication can make the AIDS virus “untransmittable” even among couples who have sex without using condoms, new research showed. The Europe-wide study monitored nearly 1,000 gay male couples over a period of eight years; where one partner was HIV-positive and receiving antiretroviral (ART) treatment; while the other was HIV negative. Doctors did not find…

AIDS

Health Care Providers Split on HIV Prevention Drug

Health care practitioners are split when it comes to opinions on which provider should take the lead in prescribing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is administered to people at high risk for HIV. That’s according to the findings of a new study by researchers from the University at Buffalo, who interviewed PrEP-prescribing providers to conduct a…

AIDS

New Method of HIV Transmission: Among Injection Drug Users

New studies from Lawson Health Research Institute and Western University have found for the first time; that HIV can transmit through the sharing of equipment; used to prepare drugs before injection and that a simple intervention—heating the equipment with a cigarette lighter for 10 seconds—can destroy the HIV virus, preventing that transmission. The findings, used…

AIDS

HIV-infected Individuals at High Risk of NAFLD

The increasing burden and risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease associated with HIV infection have today been highlighted in two studies presented at The International Liver Congress 2019 in Vienna, Austria. So, these studies found that, whilst prevalence and mortality rates; associated with viral hepatitis in HIV-infected individuals; have declining; rates associated; with NAFLD are…

AIDS

Gut Microbiome: Contribute to HIV Transmission in High-risk Men

Men who have sex with men (MSM) comprise over half of all people living with HIV in the United States and accounted for 67% of new U.S. infections in 2016. Prevention and treatment in the MSM population is of high priority in the effort to eradicate HIV/AIDS in the U.S. Identifying novel biological factors that…

Gene-editing technique

Gene-editing Technique: Opens Door for HIV Vaccine

The human body cannot naturally defend itself against HIV—not usually, at least. But in very rare cases, infected individuals generate broadly neutralizing antibodies, or bNAbs, that fight the virus. Now, Rockefeller scientists have devised a way to grant this HIV-fighting power to otherwise average immune cells. Michel C. Nussenzweig, whose work on bNAbs has produced…

opioid relapse

Naltrexone Implant Helps HIV Patients: Prevent Opioid Relapse

Untreated opioid addiction in people with HIV is; associated with poor HIV treatment outcomes. Slow-release, long-acting, implantable naltrexone might improve these outcomes. So, here, researchers present results of a study aimed to test this hypothesis.The longer the blockade of opioid effects; the more protection an individual gets from missed ART doses; and impulsive behaviours that…

AIDS

Novel Antibody Suppress HIV: For Up to Four Months

Regular infusions of an antibody that blocks the HIV binding site on human immune cells may have suppressed levels of HIV for up to four months in people undergoing a short-term pause in their antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens, according to a report published online in The New England Journal of Medicine. Results of the Phase…

AIDS

Immune System Fails Despite HIV Suppression

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the standard of care for patients with HIV. For most patients, ART-mediate suppression of HIV replication is accompanied by reconstitution of CD4+ T cells; however, in some cases, the CD4+ T cell population is not fully restored, and these immunological nonresponders (INRs) have increased mortality. In this episode, Irini Sereti, Andrea Lisco, and…

AIDS

Two-drug Complete Regimen: Untreated HIV-infected Adults

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Dovato (dolutegravir and lamivudine), as a complete regimen for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in adults with no antiretroviral treatment history and with no known or suspected substitutions associated with resistance to the individual components of Dovato. This is the first FDA-approved…

AIDS

Another Way: HIV Can Hide from Vaccines

The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer mediates cell entry and is conformationally dynamic. Imaging; by single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) has revealed that; on the surface of intact virions; mature pre-fusion Env transitions from a pre-triggered conformation (state 1); through a default intermediate conformation (state 2) to a conformation; in which it is; bound…

White blood cells

Neutrophil Lifespan: HIV-Associated Intestinal Inflammation

Gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal damage and immune dysfunction drive chronic inflammation and microbial translocation in HIV infection; which predict and likely contribute to non-infectious comorbidities and mortality. Although long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) partially restores mucosal damage; a degree of mucosal immune dysfunction and inflammation persists and is with morbidities and mortality. The increased survival of white…