N.gonorrhea and C. trachomatis comprise the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections globally and can present as co-infections. The largest disease burden occurs in developing nations within South and South-East Asia.The Ghanaian Ministry of Health guidelines for sexually transmitted infections management utilizes the WHO recommended syndrome approach to patient evaluation and treatment due to the lack of cost-effective laboratory tests.
Untreated, these infections predispose females to ectopic pregnancy and can cause Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID); infertility, and chronic pelvic pain as well as blindness and pneumonia in neonates. More than one million sexually transmitted infections are seen globally every day.
Infections predispose females
Untreated, these infections predispose females to ectopic pregnancy and can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility, and chronic pelvic pain as well as blindness and pneumonia in neonates.In females; symptoms can include abnormal vaginal discharge, dysuria, dyspareunia, haematuria, and lower abdominal pain. Males typically present with penile discharge and/or dysuria; which may lead to complications including penile stricture, epididymoorchitis, and sterility.
These include common treatable STI pathogens such as Treponema pallidium; Neisseria gonorrhoeae,Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis. These chronic complications can have a profound negative effect on the individual and the public health of a nation.
Gonorrhea and chlamydia significantly contribute to elevated disability adjusted life years; Information on the symptoms and risk factors for STIs will help to identify high-risk individuals which will in turn inform STI syndrome management and tailor the use of public health resources.
Multivariate logistic regression
In this study participants were from 4 military clinics and 1 civilian STI clinic in Ghana and eligible if they had symptoms suggestive of STI. In this study initially void urine samples is collected and tested with Nucleic Acid Amplification test; A multivariate logistic regression identified factors associated with infection, separately for NG and for CT and for men and women.
Additionally, multiple sexual partners and alcohol use were statistically associated with higher rates of gonorrhea in males while only the frequency of condom use was associated with gonorrhea for females.
Identifying these symptoms and risk factors help inform health care delivery systems for STIs in Ghana. Furthermore, men and women presenting with these symptoms and risk factors are a prime target for public health education campaigns; aimed at curbing the spread of gonorrhea and chlamydia infections.