The rate of Urinary Tract Infections diagnosed in the outpatient setting; increased between 2008 and 2017, especially among older adults and in patients receiving virtual care, researchers reported in Clinical Infectious Diseases. The researchers observed increasing diagnoses of UTIs in virtual visits compared with office and emergency visits. Specifically, the rate of UTIs by diagnosis code with antibiotic increased annually by 21.2% (95% CI, 16.5%-26.2%); among women and 29.3% (95% CI, 23.7%-35.3%) among men. Most virtual care diagnoses did not include a culture order.
“Virtual health care has shown to provide greater convenience and cost savings; but this research shows that there is potential for over diagnosis of UTI,” Katia J. Bruxvoort, PhD, MPH, infectious disease epidemiologist; and research fellow in the department of research and evaluation at Kaiser Permanente Southern California, told Infectious Disease News.
Urinary Tract Infections
Using electronic health record data at Kaiser Permanente Southern California; Bruxvoort and colleagues identified Urinary Tract Infections diagnosed in outpatient settings, including office, emergency and virtual visits; between Jan. 1, 2008, and Dec. 31, 2017. The data revealed that 1,065,955 individuals diagnosed with a UTI during the study period. When determined by diagnosis code with antibiotic, the rate per 1,000 person-years was 53.7 (95% CI, 50.6-57); and by positive culture the rate per 1,000 person-years was 25.8 (95% CI, 24.7-26.9).
Of the virtual care orders, only 32% had a culture order, according to the study. “Treatment of UTI without conducting a urine culture is routine practice for patients without complications,” Bruxvoort said. “While this is consistent with clinical recommendations, our study suggests that this practice may inadvertently contribute to overtreatment with antibiotics in some patients.”
Black and white men
Bruxvoort and colleagues noted that the rate of UTIs was shown to be the highest in older adults overall; and this population also had the most increase in rates over the study period. Hispanic and white women and black and white men also had high rates of UTIs; the researchers said. The findings suggested that outpatient settings need strategies in place to ensure the accuracy of UTI diagnoses as well as reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing.
“Overuse of antibiotics can contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance; and it is important to make sure they are being good stewards and only using them when necessary,” Bruxvoort said. “Future research is needed to explore reasons for the increase in outpatient UTI rates. We also are exploring strategies for improving diagnosis of UTI and ensuring appropriate and judicious use of antibiotics in all health care settings, including virtual care.”