Nipah Virus Transmission From Bats To Humans

As the henipa viruses, including the Nipah virus and Hendra virus; which are highly lethal and emerging, bat borne viruses within the family Paramyxoviridae that infect humans directly or via domestic animals that function as bridging hosts; as pigs were putatively infecting after consuming fruit that was partially consuming by Pteropus vampyrus bats.

In Bangladesh, transmission from bats to humans occurred through consumption of date palm sap contaminated by Pmedius  (formerly Pgiganeteus); and subsequent human to human transmission has been commonly observing; But in the initial wildlife study in response to the 2018 Kerala outbreak focusing on insectivorous bats (Megaderma spasma); whereas a later survey focusing on Pmedius and finding; that 19% (10/52) of the Pmedius testing had at least one biological sample with evidence of Nipah virus RNA; using real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

Transmission from bats to humans

But in the study predicting inform a research pipeline; that should including serosurveys of these potential bat reservoirs; and the 11 Indian bat species previously identified to have evidence of Nipah virus infection. Species that are seropositive on these initial surveys should then undergo longitudinal spatiotemporal surveillance to detect shedding.

Nipah virus has a wide host breadth in both reservoir bat species and recipient animal species. Therefore, identifying the reservoir in a new location can be challenging. Study using a systematic literature search to collate data from previous studies of Nipah virus in bats. We then prioritized surveillance of bats in Kerala, and more generally in India, on the basis of these data.

Serological evidence of Nipah virus

Nipah virus was detected by PCR in only one species occurring in India, Pmedius, which also is the known reservoir in Bangladesh. However, Nipah virus was detected by serology in many species. Eleven out of 112 bat species that occur in India, and seven of the 39 species that occur in Kerala, had serological evidence of Nipah virus exposure.

The risk of Nipah virus outbreaks in humans requiring identification of the reservoir hosts; and the dynamics of Nipah virus within those hosts. Our predictions inform initial sampling; that can be following by a sequence of study; that investigate the bat species highlighted here. Giving that bats from arid habitats may forage more widely; when water or food resources become limited in dry years; it is also possible that Nipah virus transmission may occur with increasing contact between multiple bat species mixing at higher densities around limited resources.