At present, approximately 300 million people are living with asthma worldwide. It is estimated that by 2025, another 100 million people will be diagnosed with asthma and that urban lifestyles will play a significant role in this. Among other causes, changes in diets, climate change; also air pollution have all associate with an increase in cases of asthma.
The Study of Eczema and Asthma To Observe Effects of Nutrition (SEATON) birth cohort; hence was recruit to investigate how a mother’s diet during pregnancy be affect her child’s risk of developing asthma and atopic diseases. The researchers found that high levels of vitamin D and E during pregnancy was associate with a lower risk of the child developing asthma.
Increase in the amount of children
The study began after there was a sharp increase in the amount of children diagnose; so with asthma in develop countries in 1990. At this time, increase in cases in the UK correlate with a reduction; so in the consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables. They hypothesize that such a change would increase population airway; susceptibility to allergens and irritants and thus contribute to the rise in prevalence.
The amount of vitamin D and vitamin E consume by the mother’s during pregnancy; hence was compare to the report wheezing and asthma outcomes. When the children turn 15, they ask to fill out a questionnaire containing questions such as “have you had wheezing or whistling in the chest in the past 12 months?” and other questions that enquire whether they had “ever wheezed”, “wheeze in the absence of a cold”, and whether they had eczema and hayfever.
Although only 39% of the 1924 original children return the questionnaires and some participants had withdrawn from the study, results were find to be “consistent with the findings of several systematic reviews” that previously report that higher maternal vitamin D and E intake during pregnancy was associate with a “reduce likelihood” of childhood wheezing.
This new cohort study found that “lower maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy was associate with an increase in childhood wheezing between 2 and 5 years” as well as an increase in wheeze and asthma incidence at the age of 10. Additionally, in the last year of the study, 12.8% of the participants report using asthma medication.
Its longitudinal analyses
The study states although its longitudinal analyses show links between maternal; so intake of vitamin E and vitamin D and wheeze and asthma outcomes; so in the children’s first 15 years of life at the age of 15 the data demonstrates; hence no associations between maternal vitamin D or E and current wheeze or asthma outcomes.
It hypothesizes that a mother’s intake of vitamin D and E during pregnancy; so may influence the incidence of childhood wheeze and asthma up to the age of 10; but outside exposures and influences, perhaps environmental or dietary; so are more likely to be the cause of asthma in children as they progress through puberty and into adulthood.
However, the study was not immune to limitations. Participation in the study was associate with significant biases; but the authors were confident that these biases would not produce errors “masking the findings”. Additionally, the researchers were not able to gather data on what age the children were when they were diagnose with asthma.
The study states clearly that is has confirm that there is indeed; hence an association between childhood asthma and low intake of vitamins D and E during pregnancy. However, despite the significant and worrying increase in asthma incidence in 1990, there is now evidence that asthma incidence in the UK is decreasing.