Inhaled Particles

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) accounts for more than 3 million deaths every year. COPD is the 3rd leading cause of death globally and has enormous impact on the society; so patients and their families in terms of cost and quality of life. Tobacco smoking is the main cause for the development of COPD; but non-tobacco relate causes like biomass smoke exposure, air pollution, exposure to occupational dusts and chemicals.
COPD is diagnose base on persistent airflow obstruction measure by spirometry. However, spirometry measurements reflect the sum of all the different complex and heterogenous COPD pathologies. Explain the “complexity of COPD” as the non-linear dynamic interaction of intra-pulmonary and extra-pulmonary components with time.

The complexities are present

Heterogeneity” of COPD has explain as the fact that not all the complexities are present; hence among all COPD patients at any given point of time. Thus, in terms of causality and pathophysiology; so COPD represents an extremely heterogeneous condition. Exposure to particulate matter from sources such as indoor (e.g. biomass smoke) and outdoor air pollution; also can not only initiate and promote the development of COPD but can also trigger exacerbation of respiratory symptoms among COPD patients

Epidemiology of fine particulate air pollution and human health; so biologic mechanisms and who’s at risk? Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Fine particulate air pollution and mortality in 20 US cities 1987–1994. In order to better understand the pathophysiology of COPD development and COPD exacerbations, a good understanding of particle deposition is warranted.

In addition, knowledge of particle deposition in disease lungs is useful for optimization of therapeutic inhalation strategies that involve delivery and target deposition of aerosolize drug to the disease part of the lung. This review was develop as part of a joint research collaboration between AstraZeneca (AZ) and the Institute of Environmental Medicine (IMM), Karolinska Institutet regarding modeling of particle disposition in the disease lung.

Development of the paper

The authors’ affiliations are as shown on the cover page. The authors participate in the development of the paper as individual professionals and not as representative of their employers. None of the authors have involve in the last five years with regulatory or legal proceedings relate to the contents of the paper.
Prior to submission, the manuscript was submit to AZ for internal review for the sole purpose; hence to check that the paper did not violate AZ’s proprietary rights or business secrets. The internal review was not intend to, and did not, result in any changes to the manuscript. The contents of the paper, including the conclusions drawn, are exclusively the views of the authors and not necessarily those of their employers.
The study was mainly finance by the above mention research grants that cover the salary for Koustav Ganguly at IMM. Preparation of this review was conduct during the normal course of the author’s employment without external influence or support other than the refer grants.