The researches find that the POM radiolabel with zirconium-89 (89Zr) is intravenously inject into AKI mice. Longitudinal PET imaging was then perform at various time points to monitor the renal accumulation in vivo. Therefore The therapeutic value was evaluated by dynamic positron emission PET scans with gallium-68 (68Ga)-EDTA, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine measurements, H&E staining of kidney tissues, and biomarkers detection.
Positron emission PET scans
Ni reports, “The role of POM nanoclusters acting as antioxidants is confirm both in vitro and in vivo; which is attribute to the readily variable valence state of molybdenum ions. Kidney positron emission PET scans therapies; such as rehydration and dialysis; are frequently require for patients with AKI. The protective effect of POM nanoclusters against AKI in living animals suggests exploring their use for the treatment of AKI patients.”
He adds, “POM clusters could be synthesize in an easy, fast; and large-scale process, and they are mainly excrete through the kidneys (like most clinically-use imaging agents); making them highly biocompatible and reducing the potential toxic effects on patients.” The second study; also from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, uses extremely small nanomaterials as well. It demonstrates that selenium-doped carbon quantum dots can both treat and prevent AKI by localizing in the kidneys and eliminating ROS.
Protective effect of POM
For the study, carbon quantum dots with high antioxidant capacity are prepare by doping selenium (SeCQDs) through a hydrothermal treatment. Molecular imaging provides the most effective method for investigating the biodistribution of nanomaterials, so PET imaging of SeCQDs is preform to evaluate biodistribution using 89Zr after functionalizing with deferoxamine. Results of the SeCQDs treatment of the mice are compare with those from administration of an equivalent dose of amifostine; an FDA-approved drug for AKI therapy.
“The PET imaging results revealed that SeCQDs possess fascinating nano-bio interactions;” explains Zachary Rosenkrans in the Pharmaceutical Sciences Department at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. “Surprisingly; we found that the administer dose almost entirely accumulated in the kidneys or was rapidly excrete in the urine, with little present in the liver or other organs. Results similar to this have rarely been report.”
The SeCQDs treatment
The high accumulation of SeCQDs in the kidneys proved a highly effective therapy for the treatment of AKI that was induced using 50 percent glycerol, as well as prevention of AKI from cisplatin due to its antioxidant properties. In the same animal models, amifostine was unsuccessful in treating AKI. Rosenkrans points out, “Due to this, we were able to demonstrate the advantages of utilizing nanomaterials compared to small molecules for renal disease treatment—in this case, AKI. This could most directly benefit the one in five hospitalized patients that experience AKI.”