Radio diagnosis

The researches find that the the growth of low-grade brain tumors earlier and at smaller volumes than visual comparison alone; according to a study publish May 28 in the open-access journal PLOS Medicine ;by Hassan Fathallah-Shaykh of the University of Alabama at Birmingham; and colleagues. However; additional clinical studies are need to determine whether early therapeutic interventions enable by early tumor growth detection prolong survival times and improve quality of life. Therefore Low-grade gliomas constitute 15% of all adult brain tumors and cause significant neurological problems.

Prolong survival times

There is no universally accept objective technique available for detecting the enlargement of low-grade gliomas in the clinical setting. The current gold standard is subjective evaluation through visual comparison of 2-D images from longitudinal radiological studies. Because A computer-assist diagnostic procedure that digitizes the tumor and uses imaging scans to segment the tumor and generate volumetric measures  aid in the objective detection of tumor growth by directing the attention of the physician to changes in volume.

This is important because smaller tumor sizes are associate with longer survival times and less neurological morbidity. In the new study; the authors evaluate 63 patients 56 diagnose with grade 2 gliomas and 7 followed for an imaging abnormality without pathological diagnosis for a median follow-up period of 150 months; and compared tumor growth detection by seven physicians aided by a computer-assisted diagnostic procedure versus retrospective clinical reports.

Smaller tumor sizes

The computer-assisted diagnostic procedure involved digitizing magnetic resonance imaging scans of the tumors; including 34 grade 2 gliomas with radiological progression and 22 radiologically stable grade 2 gliomas. nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI); is primarily a medical imaging technique most commonly used in radiology to visualize the internal structure and function of the body.

MRI provides much greater contrast between the different soft tissues of the body than computed tomography (CT) does; making it especially useful in neurological (brain), musculoskeletal; cardiovascular, and oncological (cancer) imaging. Unlike CT, it uses no ionizing radiation, but uses a powerful magnetic field to align the nuclear magnetization of (usually) hydrogen atoms in water in the body.

The nuclear magnetization

Radio frequency (RF) fields are used to systematically alter the alignment of this magnetization; causing the hydrogen nuclei to produce a rotating magnetic field detectable by the scanner.  Physicians aided by the computer-assisted method diagnosed tumor growth in 13 of 22 glioma patients labeled as clinically stable by the radiological reports; but did not detect growth in the imaging-abnormality group.

In 29 of the 34 patients with progression; the median time-to-growth detection is 14 months for the computer-assist method compare to 44 months for current standard-of-care radiological evaluation. Therefore Using the computer-assisted method; accurate detection of tumor enlargement is possible with a median of only 57% change in tumor volume compare to a median of 174% change in volume required using standard-of-care clinical methods.