An unconventional approach has successfully reversed deficits in social behaviors associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in genetic, environmental and idiopathic mouse models of the condition. Researchers report in the journal Neuron that administration of the bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri could lead to specific changes in the brain that social deficits through a reverse mechanism involve the vagus nerve That and the oxytocin-dopamine reward system. These findings hold hope for the development of novel therapies for neurological disorders by modulating specific microbes in the gut.
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One in three patients who die in the U.S. dies of sepsis, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It is one of the leading causes of death in intensive care units and, with an estimated price tag of $20 billion in 2011, the most expensive condition that hospitals treat.
Preclinical Experiments by the University of Alabama at Birmingham suggest the cancer drugs vorinostat, belinostat and panobinostat might be repurposed to treat infections caused by human papillomaviruses, or HPVs.
Researchers have developed a systematic way to compare the immune responses of humanized mice versus humans. They used this new testing platform to show that a newly developed humanized mouse shares significant immune-system responses with humans.
The bite from a brown recluse spider (Loxosceles) can cause skin necrosis, renal failure, and even death. A new ointment is being tested in Brazil, however. Its effects have already been proven in tests conducted in cell cultures and animal models. Now the ointment will have its immunomodulatory action tested on humans in Phase III clinical trials, and it may be included in the treatment protocol for patients who develop lesions caused by the spider bite.
Conservation scientists and statisticians at Colorado State University have teamed up to solve a key problem for the study of sensitive behaviors like poaching, harassment, bribery, and drug use.
For nearly two decades, health advocates have pushed to standardize the way medical devices are tracked and studied. They eventually had a solution to that, including other parts of the medical industry, had already adopted a unique code to help track the type, manufacturer and other key information about a device.
Drug development stakeholders from private and public sectors, including researchers, academics, and representatives from the pharmaceutical industry and advocacy groups, have joined together to call for a significant and urgent shift to prioritize predictive, human-based nonclinical tests.
EPFL researchers have developed a hydrogel – made up of nearly 90% water – that naturally adheres to soft tissue like cartilage and the meniscus. If the hydrogel carries repair cells, it could help damaged tissue to heal.
Producing effective epidermal electronics requires a strong, biocompatible interface between a biological surface and a sensor. Here, to KAIST team employed calcium-modified silk fibroin as a biocompatible and strong adhesive. This technology led to the development of epidermal electronics with strong adhesion for patients who need drug injections and physiological monitoring over a long time.
The FDA requires clinical studies of new drugs in pediatric populations, since many drugs developed for use in adults are also used in children. These studies are often requested after the drug is approved in adults, as "post-marketing" trials. However, a study from Boston Children's Hospital finds that only a third of these mandatory trials were completed within an average of seven years. As a result, most new drug labels continue to lack information needed for use in children, and most FDA-approved medications remain untreated in children.
Scientists have equipped a virus that kills carcinoma cells with a protein that can also target and kill adjacent cells that are tricked into shielding cancer from the immune system. It is the first time that cancer-associated fibroblasts within solid tumors – healthy cells that have been tricked into protecting cancer from the immune system and supplying it with growth factors and nutrients – have been specifically targeted in this way.