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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder

The Process Behind COPD: Mouse Models To Explain

The airways and lungs get affected by a range of diseases, but while some have been well characterized and treated; others such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) are still somewhat of an enigma. This condition, known to involve a variety of progressively deteriorating symptoms such as inflammation of the lungs and narrowing of the…

Research and development

Hens Offer Future Therapy Hope

Genetically modified chickens to produce human proteins in their eggs can offer a cost-effective method of producing certain types of drugs; research suggests. The study, which has initially focused on producing high quality proteins for use in scientific research; found the drugs work at least as well as the same proteins produced using existing methods.…

A Surprising Response to Cocaine: In a Novel Strain of Mutant Mice

A study finds a surprising response to cocaine in a novel strain of mutant mice — they failed to show hyperactivity seen in normal mice when given cocaine and didn't run around. In other tests, they still found cocaine appealing but displayed an inability to shake the memory of cocaine's actions when the drug was no longer administered. The key change that blocks cocaine's stimulant effects in these mice is serotonin, not dopamine, which is responsible for producing a high.

Anxiety-related Behavior By Common Food Additives

Food additives known as dietary emulsifiers, commonly found in processed foods to improve texture and extend shelf life, may adversely affect anxiety-related and social behaviors in mice, Georgia State researchers have found. The scientists also observed sex differences in the mice's behavioral patterns, suggesting that emulsifiers affect the brain via distinct mechanisms in males and females.

Cancer Insight: Knockout Study Of Mouse MicroRNA Shows

Researchers used knockout mouse models created by gene editing to reveal that the miRNA miR-146b, like miR-146a, is involved in the development of cancers, with them having similar but not identical effects. The knockout mice should help in the fight against cancers involving miRNA dysregulation. A team at Tokyo Medical and Dental University(TMDU) has revealed the molecule to cancer development, showing that the absence of the lead to dysregulation of the cell cycle, albeit with differing cancer-related outcomes.

'Social' Brain Circuits Inhibit Feeding Behavior In Mice, When Activated

Feeding behavior and social stimulation activate intermingled but distinct brain circuits, and activating one circuit can inhibit the other, according to a new study by researchers at Stanford University. The researchers demonstrated in mice that direct stimulation of fewer than two dozen nerve cells, or neurons, linked to social interaction was enough to suppress the animals' drive to feed themselves — a finding with potential clinical significance for understanding and treating eating disorders such as anorexia.

Peripheral Nerve Damage: Gene Therapy Blocks

Scientists have developed a gene therapy that blocks axonal degeneration, preventing axon destruction in mice and suggesting a therapeutic strategy that could help prevent the loss of peripheral nerves in multiple conditions. Nerve axons serve as the wiring of the nervous system, sending electrical signals that control movement and sense of touch. Now, scientists have developed a gene therapy that blocks this process, preventing axon destruction, suggesting a therapeutic strategy that could help prevent the loss of peripheral nerves in multiple conditions. The study appears in the Journal of Experimental Medicine.

First Clinical Trial Of Stem Cell-based Therapeutic Approach For AMD

Using a novel patient-specific stem cell-based therapy, researchers at the National Eye Institute (NEI) prevented blindness in animal models of geographic atrophy, the advanced "dry" form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The protocols established by the animal study, published in Science Translational Medicine (STM), set the stage for a first-in-human clinical trial testing the therapy in people with geographic atrophy, for which there is currently no treatment.

FDA-approved Drug Stops Metastasis, Study Finds

New research from the University of Pennsylvania's School of Veterinary Medicine has identified an FDA-approved drug that, when used with surgery, hampers metastasis in an animal model. The medication resperine also prevents what are known as tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (TEVs) from fusing to healthy cells and sharing their cargo of disease-promoting molecules. The study's findings, published in the Penn Today.