Pharmacology

The researches find that the Despite their toxicity, heavy metals have been used in medicine for hundreds of years and their importance as treatment options are undisputed. They have therapeutic applications across a range of indications, including microbial infections, ulcers; arthritis and they have proved especially valuable in the battle against cancer.  Arsenic, antimony, gold, vanadium, platinum and iron are just a few of the heavy metals widely use in cancer chemotherapy. They have demonstrated impressive efficacy in destroying or preventing the growth of tumor cells, yet their use is often limited by toxicity, such as hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity or myelotoxicity.

Metal Cancer Treatment

Chelation therapy has been widely use to clean up excess circulating metal ions to reduce side effects from metallic poisoning after administration of treatments containing heavy metals. Therefore A recent addition to the list of heavy metal cancer treatments is μ-oxo-N,N’-bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine iron; known as iron-salen or (Fe(Salen)). Iron-salen works in a similar way to the established chemotherapy agent, cisplatin. Targete anti-tumor activity has been demonstrate with iron-salen and it has the potential to be a potent single-drug anticancer agent.

Iron-salen has the added benefit of being intrinsically magnetic meaning that it can be made to accumulate locally using a permanent magnet. Consequently, with the application of a magnetic field; iron-salen can be used as a targeted drug delivery system detectable by magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, application of an alternating magnetic field will give rise to the production of heat; making iron-salen suitable for targeted hyperthermic therapy to specifically destroy cancer cells in situ. However; excess iron-salen has been shows to induce liver dysfunction and renal dysfunction in mice.

Delivery system detectable

Iron is a crucial element for the growth and survival of almost all living organisms; largely because its potential for conversion between ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+); ions makes it ideal for various biological redox processes. Iron is an essential component of hemoglobin and several enzymes, yet when not bind to protein it results in the release of a wide range of harmful free radicals that attack DNA; causing cellular damage; mutation and malignant transformations.

High levels of circulating unbound iron can penetrate into cells of the heart, liver and brain causing serious damage. Consequently; although iron-containing compounds can provide effective treatment solutions; Because they can also increase morbidity and mortality. It is thus necessary to identify a suitable means for neutralizing excess iron-salen before it can be widely used in clinical applications. Deferoxamine mesylate (DFO) is an iron-chelating agent and has been a gold standard treatment for controlling excess iron for several decades. It is a hexadentate siderophore that has a very high affinity for iron.