Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to cure a disease, but more specifically, it refers to drug therapy for cancer. Cancer chemotherapy can be done with a single drug or a combination of drugs and is usually systematic.

Plasma Proteins

Plasma proteins are proteins present in blood plasma. They serve many different functions, including transport of lipids, hormones, vitamins, and minerals in activity and functioning of the immune system. Other blood proteins act as enzymes, complement components, protease inhibitors or kinin precursors. Contrary to popular belief, hemoglobin is not a blood protein, as it is carried within red blood cells, rather than in the blood serum.

Serum albumin accounts for 55% of blood proteins and is a significant contributor to maintaining the oncotic pressure of plasma to assist in the transport of lipids and steroid hormones.

Globulins make up 38% of blood proteins and transport ions, hormones, and fats supporting in immune function. Fibrinogen comprises 7% of blood proteins; conversion of fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin is essential for blood clotting. The remainder of the plasma proteins (1%) are regulatory proteins, such as enzymes, proenzymes, and hormones. All blood proteins are synthesized in liver except for the gamma globulins.

That is to say that a drug is administered through the blood circulation to eliminate cancer cells in many parts of the body. Within last few years, advancements in chemotherapy have given rise to successful patient outcomes, and there are a large number of anti-cancer drugs which are present in the market.

Chemotherapeutic drugs are composed of different compounds. This review provides information about chemotherapeutic drugs that bind to plasma proteins. Cisplatin (a platinum-based complex), 5-fluorouracil and ruthenium-based drugs are a few examples. Cisplatin interacts covalently and alters the function of the key plasma protease inhibitor molecule -alpha-2-macroglobulin and induces the conformational changes in the protein molecule, thus inactivating it.

5-fluorouracil is metabolized at a large scale, and it is associated with Human Serum Albumin. Ruthenium compounds bind with protein plasma serum-albumin and serum transferrin rendering them toxic to cancer cells. The review also details the use of these drugs based on cancer types and their side