All news from Pathology & Microbiology

HIV infection: Antibody can Block B cells from Fighting Pathogens, New Mechanism

For the first time, scientists have shown that in certain people living with HIV, a type of antibody called immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3) stops the immune system's B cells from doing their normal job of fighting pathogens. This phenomenon appears to be one way the body tries to reduce the potentially damaging effects of immune-system hyperactivity caused by the presence of HIV, according to the investigators, but in so doing, it also impairs normal immune function.

Rabies Virus : Insight on its Disease Mechanism

To successfully infect its host, the rabies virus must move from the nerve ending to the nerve cell body where it can replicate. In a study published in the journal PLoS Pathogens, researchers from Princeton University reveal that the rabies virus moves differently compared to other neuron-invading viruses and that its journey can be blocked by a drug commonly used to treat amoebic dysentery.

Tanzania Puts Pathogen Discovery to the Test, Cause Unexplained Illness

When patients presented with unexplained fever at Mwananyamala Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, scientists compared two genetic sequencing methods used to identify the potential viruses behind the illnesses: VirCapSeq-VERT, a method developed at the Center for Infection and Immunity (CII) and unbiased high-throughput sequencing.

Both methods yielded similar results. However, VirCapSeq-VERT was more efficient. Details of the study, the first to report on the use of VirCapSeq-VERT in a clinical setting, are published today in the journal mSphere.

Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Expansive Arterial Remodeling

Expansive arterial remodeling (EAR) comprises a genetically programmed biological response designed to restore homeostatic levels of arterial wall stress after an increase in vessel flow load occurs.

The magnitude and rate of EAR reactions relative to local hemodynamic stress fields and the tensile strength of vascular tissue determines whether the process will result in a stable mural structure (adaptive remodeling) or an unstable mural structure that progresses to form an aneurysm (maladaptive remodeling).

Drug-Resistant Strains: Lower-risk Malaria Regions are Breeding Grounds

New drug-resistant strains of the parasite that causes malaria tend to evolve in regions with lower malaria risk; in areas with high transmission rates, they get outcompeted by the more common, drug-sensitive strains inside the human host. In high-transmission settings, it takes a long time for drug-resistant strains to take hold, but once they do, they can spread rapidly, according to a new study.

Multiplication of Dengue Virus Lineage, Mechanism Uncovered

A lineage of type 1 dengue virus found in Brazil is able to prevail over another even though it multiplies less in vector mosquitoes and infected human cells. This discovery was made under the scope of a Thematic Project supported by the São Paulo Research Foundation – FAPESP involving several Brazilian institutions as well as a university in the United States.