When the results of electroencephalography (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and seizure semiology are discordant or no structural lesion is evident on MRI, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are important examinations for lateralization or localization of epileptic regions

Researchers hypothesized that the concordance between interictal 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18FDG)-PET and iomazenil (IMZ)-SPECT could suggest the epileptogenic lobe in patients with non-lesional findings on MRI.

Fifty-nine patients (31 females, 28 males; mean age, 29 years; median age, 27 years; range, 7-56 years) underwent subdural electrode implantation followed by focus resection. All patients underwent 18FDG-PET, IMZ-SPECT, and focus resection surgery. Follow-up was continued for ≥ 2 years.

They evaluated surgical outcomes as seizure-free or not and analyzed correlations between outcomes and concordances of low-uptake lobes on PET, SPECT, or both PET and SPECT to the resection lobes. We used uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses.

Results

In univariate analyses, all three concordances correlated significantly with seizure-free outcomes (PET, p = 0.017; SPECT, p = 0.030; both PET and SPECT, p = 0.006). In multivariate analysis, concordance between resection and low-uptake lobes in both PET and SPECT correlated significantly with seizure-free outcomes (p = 0.004). The odds ratio was 6.0.

According to Widjaja, the combination 18FDG-PET and MEG can increase the sensitivity and specificity of assessments for localization-related epilepsy.

Their results suggest that 18FDG-PET and IMZ-SPECT are also complementary examinations in the assessment of localization-related epilepsy. From this point of view, we hypothesized that interictal 18FDG-PET + IMZ-SPECT concordance could suggest the epileptogenic lobe in patients with non-lesional findings on MRI.

Concordance between interictal 18FDG-PET and IMZ-SPECT suggested that the epileptogenic lobe is six times better than each examination alone among patients with non-lesional findings on MRI. IMZ-SPECT and 18FDG-PET are complementary examinations in the assessment of localization-related epilepsy.