Kidney stones are associated with an increased risk for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), specifically papillary RCC, and upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), according to a study published online Dec. Nineteen in the British Journal of Cancer.

Kidney stone disease Synonyms Urolithiasis, kidney stone, renal calculus, nephrolith, kidney stone disease, A color photograph of a kidney stone, 8 millimeters in length. A kidney stone, 8 millimeters (0.3 in) in diameter Specialty Urology, Nephrology Symptoms of Severe pain in the lower back or abdomen, blood in the urine, vomiting, nausea Causes Genetic and environmental factorsDiagnostic method Based on symptoms, urine testing, medical imaging Differential diagnosis Abdominal aortic aneurysm, diverticulitis, appendicitis, pyelonephritis.

Prevention Drinking fluids such that more than two liters of urine are produced per day Treatment Pain medication, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy Frequency 22.1 million (2015) Deaths16,100 (2015). Kidney stone disease, also known as urolithiasis, is when a solid piece of material (kidney stone) occurs in the urinary tract. Kidney stones typically form in the kidney and leave the body in the urine stream.  

Kidney Stone

A small stone may pass without causing symptoms. If a stone grows to more than 5 millimeters (0.2 in), it can cause blockage of the ureter resulting in severe pain in the lower back or abdomen. Stone may also result in blood in the urine, vomiting, or painful urination.  About half of people will have another stone within ten years.  Most stones form due to a combination of genetics and environmental factors. Risk factors include high urine calcium levels, obesity, certain foods, some medications, calcium supplements, hyperparathyroidism, gout and not drinking enough fluids.

Stones form in the kidney when minerals in urine are at high concentration. The diagnosis is usually based on symptoms, urine testing, and medical imaging.  Blood tests may also be useful. Stones are typically classified by their location: nephrolithiasis (in the kidney), ureterolithiasis (in the ureter), cystolithiasis (in the bladder), or by what they are made of (calcium oxalate, uric acid, struvite, cysteine). Jeroen A.A. van de Pol, from Maastricht University in the Netherlands, and colleagues examined the correlation between kidney stones and RCC and UTUC among 120,852 participants aged 55 to 69 years.

A case-cohort analysis was conducted among 4,352 subcohort members, 544 RCC cases, and 140 UTUC cases after 20.3 years of follow-up.The researchers found that compared with no kidney stones, kidney stones correlated with increased RCC risk (hazard ratio [HR], 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 1.84). The risk for papillary RCC was increased with kidney stones (HR, 3.08; 95 percent CI, 1.55 to 6.11), but the risk for clear-cell RCC was not (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.65).

Participants with kidney stones had an increased risk for b(HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.03 to 2.86). There was no heterogeneity of correlations for UTUC in the ureter and renal pelvis.Compared with later diagnosis, early kidney stone diagnosis (≤40 years) correlated with increased RCC and UTUC risk.  "In light of the findings of this study, more research is needed to unravel the mechanisms behind the relation of kidney stones and RCC and UTUC," the authors write.