Chronic Kidney disease (CKD) is highly associated with all-cause mortality, Diabetic Nephropathy (DN), cardiovascular events and hospitalization whether the patient has an existing risk or current cardiovascular disease or not.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a type of kidney disease in which there is a gradual loss of kidney function throughout months or years. Early on there are typically no symptoms. Later, leg swelling, feeling tired, vomiting, loss of appetite, or confusion may develop. Complications may include heart disease, high blood pressure, bone disease, or anemia.

Causes of chronic kidney disease include diabetes, high blood pressure, glomerulonephritis, and polycystic kidney disease. Risk factors include a family history of the condition. Diagnosis is generally by blood tests to measure the glomerular filtration rate and urine tests to measure albumin. Further tests such as an ultrasound or kidney biopsy may be done to determine the underlying cause. Some different classification systems exist.

Screening at-risk people is recommended. Initial treatments may include medications to manage blood pressure, blood sugar, and lower cholesterol. NSAIDs should be avoided. Other suggested measures include staying active and specific dietary changes.  Severe disease may require hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or a kidney transplant. Treatments for anemia and bone disease may also be necessary.

Cardiovascular Disease

CKD can increase the chances of cardiovascular disease by two to fifty times and 50% mortality of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis attributed to CVD and its complications. In this review, Co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ10) was tested as a potential treatment for CKD. The systemic review and meta-analysis of randomized control trials (RCTs) were conducted to evaluate the effects of CoQ10  supplementation on metabolic profiles of patients diagnosed with CKD.

CoQ10 is a potent lipophilic antioxidant that couple's electron transport to oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. It is generally used as an alternative and complementary therapy for diseases with metabolic disorders. The extra protein has shown beneficial effects during the treatment of heart failure. It was found that the circulating concentration in patients with CKD had been decreased. This suggested that the CoQ10 antioxidant treatment would be an ideal solution for the disease.

The results accumulated during meta-analysis proved that the CoQ10 supplementation significantly reduced total-cholesterol, malondialdehyde, and creatinine levels in patients diagnosed with CKD. It did not affect Triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, fasting glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations.

The current meta-analysis demonstrated that CoQ10 supplementation significantly improved metabolic profile in patients with CKD by reducing total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, MDA and creatinine levels, yet it did not affect fasting glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and CRP concentrations.