Proteins Induced Antibiotic Hypersensitivity In MRSA

MRSA targets all parts of the body, from the surface to the internal organs, proteins  and is the leading cause of wide-spread and potentially lethal infectious diseases including necrotizing pneumonia, necrotizing fasciitis, severe sepsis, Waterhouse Friderichsen syndrome, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and bacteremia.

Using smart strategies, MRSA strains gain resistance to antibiotics, such as utilizing the multifunctional mobile genetic element (SCCmec) or acquiring a non-native gene encoding a penicillin-binding protein with significantly lower affinity for beta-lactamase. Some proteins and peptides undergo self-association under the restricted conditions of certain physical and chemical parameters, and ultimately produce amyloid fibrils.

Proteins induced hypersensitivity

During fibrillization of amyloidogenic proteins/ peptides; certain aggregating species appear that are more cytotoxic than others. It is believing that they are capable of penetrating the membrane; and consequently perforating the lipid bilayer completely.

But the morphology of S. aureus is well-known. S. aureus as a Gram-positive coccal bacterium has a spherical shape. Untreating cells exhibiting normal shapes with smooth and intact surfaces; and without any damage or membrane disruption; displaying a size of approximately 0.55 -0.7 µm. Conversely, it seems that after adding the least non-toxic concentration of Ox, a small change on the surface of the bacterial cells was observing which was more detectable in the magnified images.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus

But methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the specific strain of S. aureus; resistant to most of the antibiotics. The resistant strains produce an enzyme called betalactamase; that inactivating beta-lactam antibiotics. Attempts by researchers led to the production of synthetic derivatives of penicillin that were resistant to hydrolysis by beta-lactamase.

The PBP2a enzyme catalyzes the transpeptidation reaction that is necessary for cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains in bacterial cell walls. Because PBP2a has low affinity toward all beta-lactam antibiotics, therapeutic doses of methicillin become essentially ineffective. Hence, staphylococci strains that are resistant to methicillin are resistant to all other beta-lactams.