Dyslipidemia is an abnormal clinical condition by the altered level of one or more plasma lipids; including but not restricted to total (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C); cholesterol and triglycerides (TG). Dyslipidemias often increase concomitantly with body mass index (BMI) and central adiposity; increasing the risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases (CVD); its pathophysiology is multifactorial but an excess of body weight and sedentarism are two of the most important factors.
Effective control measures to stop the pandemic obesity-dyslipidemia; consortium are a priority for health systems worldwide. Lifestyle changes aimed to reduce people’s sedentarism and the promotion of healthy eating patterns have widely used to prevent and even treat obesity and dyslipidemias. However, moderate physical activity alone is not effective to lose weight or body fat but systematic exercise programs based on high-intensity protocols reduce CVD risk and dyslipidemia.
The worlds health care systems
The excess of body weight is highly associated with dyslipidemias; the world health care systems yearly boost new initiatives to prevent and treat these and other CVD risks. This study provides unique evidence on the synergistic effects of S. maxima supplementation (4.5 g·day−1) and a systematic exercise program on improving blood lipid levels in overweight, obese and dyslipidemic subjects by using a double-blind, randomized, crossover trial design.
It is noteworthy that very few studies have focused on Spirulina supplementation on dyslipidemia. However, even without being part of the hypothesis; the main finding of this study was the improvement on blood lipids concentration of dyslipidemic men by six weeks of treatment with S. maxima supplementation (4.5 g·day−1) and/or systematic physical exercise practice. There is no information in the literature about clinical trials using Spirulina together; with aerobic exercise or high-intensity interval training.
Only a few studies have focused on Spirulina supplementation effects against dyslipidemia and CVD risk factors. Mani et al. studied the effect of Spirulina supplementation (2 g·day−1); during two months on the serum lipid profile of 15 patients affected by type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM), resulting in a significant reduction of TG, TC, LDL-C, and free fatty acid in blood concentrations. By means of a better-structured trial, Lee et al. Studied the effect of Spirulina supplementation (8 g·day−1) during 12 weeks in 37 patients with T2DM; reporting a significant reduction in TG levels after the intervention.
The gut microbiota
The individual differences were wide-ranging due to different factors; like genetics or gut microbiota; consequently, it is essential to clarify that our treatment could not sufficient for reducing cardiovascular risks, but trials of long duration or in different kind of populations can be conducted, measuring not only the blood lipids but specific markers like creatine kinase, glucose or enzymatic activity to understand better the action mechanism of exercise and/or S. maxima intake.
The strong points of the present study were: no missing data, no participants dropped out during the trial and the double-blind randomized protocol. The beneficial results suggest a synergistic effect of systematic physical exercise and S. maxima; resulting in an improvement of the blood lipid profile.
Limitations of the study were that only sedentary overweight and obese men selected; so the results may not be the same in other populations. According to the results, Spirulina maxima supplementation enhances the effect of a short-term systematic physical exercise program; on BMI and blood lipid profile observed in overweight and obese men, but mostly in individuals with dyslipidemia.