The final remodeling phase involves the formation of cellular connective tissue and strengthening of the newly formed epithelium. Elevated and sustained reactive oxygen species (ROS); have in vivo and have with impaired wound repair in chronic non-healing wounds. Excessive ROS can directly or indirectly degrade extracellular matrix proteins via proteolysis activation.
However low-level ROS play a pivotal role in the normal wound healing response. They act as secondary messengers to recruit many immunocytes and non-lymphoid cells; to the wound site and promote tissue repair. Thus the manipulation of ROS presents a promising avenue for accelerating wound healing when they are stalled.
Different drugs and delivery systems have extensively investigated targeting the phases of wound healing mentioned above. The presently available wound medication requires frequent dressing changes where the wounds; have an increased risk of infection until the skin heals completely. Particularly, in the case of chronic wounds, where there are insufficient blood flow and local edema; healing of wounds is very difficult without any active treatments.
The nanocomposite hydrogel
Also, the current treatment options are expensive, limited, and inefficient which led to the development of new therapeutics; to satisfy the unmet clinical needs. In the current study, they introduced edaravone loaded nanocomposite hydrogel as a potential formulation for an efficient wound healing in diabetics. The rationale behind the use of alginate based nanocomposite hydrogel as a drug carrier is to deliver edaravone topically in a sustainable way from; its matrix structure and at the same time using the therapeutic potential of alginate in wound healing.
Edaravone has been demonstrated to a promising substance to scavenge OH radicals and to inhibit both OH-dependent and OH-independent lipid peroxidation. Additionally, it has inhibitory effects on both water- and lipid-soluble peroxyl radical-induced peroxidation systems. They have prepared edaravone loaded Eudragit nanoparticles by solvent displacement and evaporation methods that results in particles with high edaravone encapsulation (~51.77%).
Improve wound healing
The main reason for preferring the topical formulations of edaravone is to offer solubility; better bioavailability, and sustained release of edaravone in an active form; which is certainly of great benefit for providing a constant dose of the drug for prolonged periods to improve wound healing. Understanding the perfect dose of edaravone is essential for multiple targets, and above all its complex role in the inflammatory response in wound repair is needs to address before further clinical studies.
The present work investigated the combined activity of edaravone and alginate on topical wound healing in diabetic. They demonstrated that a low dose of edaravone nanocomposite hydrogel is conducive to wound repair by downregulating ROS levels in diabetic close to normal mice. On the contrary, a high dose of edaravone is destructive to wound healing because of insufficient ROS.
Thus, the dose might be a key factor in the translational application of edaravone in wound healing. Modulators of free radicals showed promising therapeutic efficacy in vitro and in vivo studies but found limited success in clinical trials attributable to achieving a subtherapeutic level at the target site. The alginate-based nanocomposite hydrogel is promising for diabetic wound healing; because of its innate alginate activity and sustained edaravone release.