Checkpoint inhibitor therapy is a form of cancer treatment immunotherapy currently under research. The therapy targets immune checkpoints, key regulators of the immune system that stimulate or inhibit its actions, which tumors can use to protect themselves from attacks by the immune system.

Disorders of the immune system can result in autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases, and cancer. Immunodeficiency occurs when the immune system is less active than normal, resulting in recurring and life-threatening infections.

In humans, immunodeficiency can either be the result of a genetic disease such as severe combined immunodeficiency, acquired conditions such as HIV/AIDS, or the use of immunosuppressive medication

As Immune checkpoint inhibitors are happened to be new antitumor drugs and they are related to immune-related Adverse Events (AEs), this includes rheumatic disease and musculoskeletal disease.

In this study, the Medline reports were searched on musculoskeletal and rheumatic AEs which were caused by immune checkpoint inhibitors. Immune checkpoint inhibitors treatments are reported by the studies which are associated with several musculoskeletal and rheumatic AEs in the literature.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors treatment

Whereas it is reported in case studies and case reports that arthralgia and myalgia happened to be the most commonly reported AEs although the commonality of arthritis, myositis, and vasculitis is pretty much less characterized. AEs which are described later are, sicca syndrome, polymyalgia rheumatica, systemic lupus erythematosus, and sarcoidosis.

A frequently adverted event that associates newly induced musculoskeletal and rheumatic diseases with immune checkpoint inhibitors treatment are brought to the surface by new researches.