Immune hematology

The refreshers find that  autoimmune diseases which can be seen on the body or felt through symptoms; the attack on the islets not be observe because they reside deep within the pancreas. Therefore Identifying a reliable biomarker to predict the onset of autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes (T1D) has eluded scientists. Because An immune system is a collection of biological processes within an organism that protects against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and tumour cells.

Identifying a reliable biomarker

It detects a wide variety of agents, from viruses to parasitic worms; and needs to distinguish them from the organism’s own healthy cells and tissues in order to function properly. Therefore Detection is complicate as pathogens  evolve rapidly; producing adaptations that avoid the immune system and allow the pathogens to successfully infect their hosts.

As a result; T1D is typically diagnose long after the majority of insulin-producing cells have been irreversibly destroyed. Research Institute at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine have shown that islets transplanted in the anterior chamber of the eye (ACE) may be reliable reporters of type 1 diabetes development and progression elsewhere in the body. In a study conducted in a rodent model of type 1 diabetes; the researchers showed that ACE-transplanted islets exhibit early signs of inflammation well before the manifestation of diabetes symptoms.

Healthy cells and tissues

If scientists could detect the start of islet destruction early enough, it could allow for timely interventions to halt or delay the further loss of the islet cells at the inception of the disease or before recurrence of autoimmunity after islet transplantation. The results are published online in Diabetologia; the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD).

Using a previously established approach that they pioneered; study co-authors Midhat Abdulreda, Ph.D., DRI assistant professor of surgery, and Per-Olof Berggren, Ph.D.; Mary Lou Held Visiting Scientist and adjunct professor of surgery at the DRI; and director of the Rolf Luft Research Center for Diabetes and Endocrinology at the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, Sweden, and their team studied in real time transplanted islets within the ACE of mice before; during and after type 1 diabetes development.

Hallmarks of autoimmunity

The team found that during diabetes onset, islet grafts in the eye were attacked by the immune system in a similar way to islets transplanted in the kidney as well as to native islets of the pancreas. Additionally; the infiltration of the immune cells in all three locations coincided with the hallmarks of autoimmunity, namely early islet inflammation and the later onset of hyperglycemia.