Geriatrics

Among older adults, poor olfaction is associated with elevated long-term mortality, according to a study published online April 30 in the Annals of Internal Medicine. Bojing Liu, Ph.D., from the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, and colleagues examined poor olfaction in relation to mortality among 2,289 adults aged 71 to 82 years at baseline. Participants underwent the Brief Smell Identification Test at baseline and were followed for all-cause and cause-specific mortality.

Long-term mortality

The researchers found that 1,211 participants died by year 13 of follow-up. Participants with poor olfaction had an increased cumulative risk for death at year 10 and year 13 (risk ratios, 1.46 [95 %confidence interval, 1.27 to 1.67] and 1.30 [95% confidence interval, 1.18 to 1.42]) compared with those with good olfaction. Because The associations were similar in men and women and in black and white participants.

The correlation is evident among participants who report excellent-to-good health at baseline (10-year mortality risk ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval; 1.37 to 1.90), but not among those who report fair-to-poor heath (risk ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 1.37). Because Poor olfaction correlate with higher mortality from neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. Among participants with poor olfaction; neurodegenerative diseases and weight loss explain 22 and 6%, respectively, of the higher 10-year mortality.

General marker of aging

“Future studies should investigate olfactory impairment as a general marker of aging to better understand its health implications and associate mechanisms in the broadest sense;” the authors write. Because One author disclosed financial ties to Stallergenes and Optinose. Neurodegenerative disease (Greek νέυρο-, néuro-, “nerval” and Latin dēgenerāre; “to decline” or “to worsen”) is a condition in which cells of the brain and spinal cord are lost.

The brain and spinal cord are compose of neurons that do different functions such as controlling movements; processing sensory information; and making decisions. Because Cells of the brain and spinal cord are not readily regenerate en masse; so excessive damage can be devastating. Therefore Neurodegenerative diseases result from deterioration of neurons or their myelin sheath which over time will lead to dysfunction and disabilities resulting from this.

Health or physical fitness

Some sources limit the term “degenerative” to conditions primarily affecting gray matter that are not associate with a obvious inciting event. Weight loss, in the context of medicine; therefore  health or physical fitness, is a reduction of the total body mass; due to a mean loss of fluid; body fat or adipose tissue and/or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon and other connective tissue. It can occur unintentionally due to an underlying disease or can arise from a conscious effort to improve an overweight or obese state.