Gastroenteritis also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract the stomach and small intestine; Symptoms may include diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal pain. Fever, lack of energy and dehydration may also occur.
The enteric viruses associating with acute gastroenteritis; include rotavirus A, rotavirus B, rotavirus C, Caliciviruses; enteric adenovirus, human astroviruses, aichiviruses, toroviruses, coronaviruses, picobirnaviruses, enteroviruses, and Sali/Klassi viruses. Globally, RVA is the main cause of sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis in children less than 5 years of age and outbreak cases in infants hospitalized, day care centers, and old age individuals.
Acute gastroenteritis outbreak
But in investigation of this outbreak; maintaining the cold chain for storage and transport of clinical samples is very difficult in such a setting. Therefore, fecal specimens were collecting from 10 representative patients admitted on 21st and 22nd November 2017 for investigation of enteric viral agents.
Norovirus reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR) positive results; even in a single fecal specimen out of three or more are sufficient to assign; it as the causative agent of the corresponding outbreak. The minimum number of specimens requiring to confirm RVB etiology; during the outbreak could not be estimating due to the absence of data on the prevalence rate of RVB in adult; diarrheal patients as well as in a healthy population.
Viral RNA was extracting from the supernatant of 30% fecal suspensions using TRIzol LS reagent (Invitrogen, Waltham, MA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. RNA polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (RNA‐PAGE) was using for detection of rotavirus double‐stranded RNA genome segments.
However, the possibility of low exposure is excluding in the present study as the source of drinking water was the same for all villagers. Similarly, RT‐PCR, the only method used globally for RVB detection is known for its high sensitivity. Therefore, further studies on receptors; maternal and local immunity are necessary to understand the exact mechanism behind the resistance of the pediatric population for RVB infections.