Pediatric Thyroid

From 1973 to 2013, there was an increase in the incidence rates of pediatric thyroid cancer, with marked increases from 2006 to 2013, according to a study publish online May 23 in JAMA Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery. Z. Jason Qian, M.D., from the Stanford University School of Medicine in California, and colleagues analyze trends in pediatric thyroid cancer incidence for 1,806 patients age younger than 20 years.

Pediatric thyroid cancer

Surgical diseases of the thyroid in the pediatric population represent a diverse set of both benign and malignant conditions. Benign conditions include Graves’ disease, toxic adenomas, congenital hyperthyroidism, and goiter. Malignancy is most commonly differentiate thyroid cancers (DTC); which includes papillary (predominantly) and follicular cancers, and medullary thyroid cancer (MTC); also with its relate familial cancer syndromes.

The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing by 3% annually. This increase is often thought to be attributable to overdiagnosis in adults. A previous study report a 1.1% annual increase in the incidence of pediatric thyroid cancer. However, the analysis was limited to the period from 1973 to 2004; also was perform in a linear fashion; which does not account for changes in incidence trends over time.

This cross-sectional study include individuals younger than 20 years; who had a diagnosis of thyroid cancer in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 9 database from 1973 to 2013. Cases of thyroid cancer were identify using the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition and were categorize by histologic type, stage, and tumor size.

Incidence rates of thyroid cancer

The researchers find that from 1973 to 2013; so there was an increase in the overall incidence rates of thyroid cancer, from 0.48 to 1.14 per 100,000 person-years. The incidence rates increase gradually from 1973 to 2006 (annual percent change [APC], 1.11%) and then increase sharply from 2006 to 2013 (APC, 9.56%).

From 1983 to 2006, there was a gradual increase in the incidence rates of large tumors (>20 mm; APC, 2.23%), follow by a mark increase from 2006 to 2013 (APC, 8.84%). These rates did not differ significantly from those of small tumors (1 to 20 mm). From 1973 to 2006, there was a gradual increase in the incidence rates of regionally extend thyroid cancer (APC, 1.44%), follow by a mark increase from 2006 to 2013 (APC, 11.16%).

The similar marked increases in the incidence rates of large tumors; also advanced-stage disease suggest a true increase in the occurrence of pediatric thyroid cancer,” the authors write. The incidence rates of pediatric thyroid cancer increase more rapidly from 2006 to 2013 than from 1973 to 2006. The findings suggest that there may be a co-occurring increase in thyroid cancer in the pediatric population in addition to enhance detection.