Nutritional Factors that through influencing the endocrine system

Nutritional Factors; Metabolism and growth are under the control of the endocrine system that, working in cooperation with the nervous system, regulates these functions. The objective of this Research Topic was to provide a multidisciplinary approach of cutting-edge research on metabolism and growth in different experimental models, including farmed species. The Research Topic contains 12 contributions, comprising 7 original research articles, 3 reviews, and 2 minireviews.

These works include a wide range of cellular and in vivo models, methodological and conceptual approaches. The Topic focused on recent research conducted in the field of metabolism and growth; also aimed to address key questions about the interplay between nutritional, environmental, or other external factors and the endocrine system; so as well as the modulation of signals involved in the control of feed intake, regulating these processes.

The nutritional factors

From fish to mammals, the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis is the major endocrine system stimulating growth, indicating a strong evolutionary conservation. GH regulates growth directly; but also indirectly through induced production of IGF-I, mostly in the liver, but also in peripheral tissues, where this growth factor exerts paracrine and autocrine actions.

Among the external signals modulating growth and metabolism; so diet availability and composition are the most notable. In line with this, one review within the Topic has explore the nutritional factors; so that through influencing the endocrine system control feeding and growth in fish; so describing the nutrients as well as the brain and peripheral hormones that regulate food intake.

Secondly, the recent knowledge achieved concerning the interaction of stress; so with the different neurosensing mechanisms and peripheral endocrine signals such as leptin that regulate food intake in fish have revise. Then, considering the effects of specific nutrients on metabolism; so the physiological and epigenetic changes induce by methionine restriction have review encompassing both, mammalian and fish models.

The dietary supplementation

Next, specifically in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata); so the effects of dietary supplementation with the aminoacid derivative creatine on muscle growth and quality, have explore. Increasing dietary creatine enlarged dorsal cross-sectional muscle area and modulate the expression of genes relate to muscle growth (i.e., myogenic regulatory factors, MRFs) and texture (i.e., protein degradation); so further studies are require to better clarify these effects in fish.

Besides abiotic factors, environmental contaminants are know to cause adverse health effects; so impairing not only reproduction but also metabolism and development in wildlife and humans; so since there is evidence that endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDCs) can interact with a variety of hormones and/or hormone receptors; exerting actions as agonists or antagonists.

Taken together, these studies have demonstrated the effects of dietary and environmental factors on metabolic processes, and the complex interactions of all these factors on the control of the endocrine system regulating growth and metabolism mainly in model organisms and farmed species.