An innovative study on the laser activating microrobots; targeting medical treatment to an ailing body part is a practice as old as medicine itself. The microrobots consist of microscopic spheres of magnesium metal coated with thin layers of gold and parylene, a polymer that resists digestion. The layers leave a circular portion of the sphere uncovered, kind of like a porthole.
The uncovered portion of the magnesium reacts with the fluids in the digestive tract, generating small bubbles. The stream of bubbles acts like a jet and propels the sphere forward until it collides with nearby tissue. Magnesium spherical microrobots that can zoom around might be interesting, but they are not especially useful. To turn them from a novelty into a vehicle for delivering medication, Wang and Gao made some modifications to them.
Microrobots targeting medical treatment
At this stage, the spheres are capable of carrying drugs, but still lack the crucial ability to deliver them to a desired location. For that, Wang and Gao use photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT), a technique developed by Wang that uses pulses of infrared laser light. The infrared laser light diffuses through tissues and is absorbed by oxygen-carrying hemoglobin molecules in red blood cells, causing the molecules to vibrate ultrasonically.
Those ultrasonic vibrations are picking up by sensors pressing against the skin. The data from those sensors is using to create images of the internal structures of the body. The study sowing that variations of PACT can be using to identify breast tumors; or even individual cancer cells. With respect to the microrobots, the technique has two jobs. The first is imaging.
Individual cancer cells
By using PACT, the researchers can find tumors in the digestive tract and also track the location of the microrobots, which show up strongly in the PACT images. Once the microrobots arrive in the vicinity of the tumor; a high-power continuous-wave near-infrared laser beam is using to activate them. Because the microrobots absorb the infrared light so strongly; they briefly heat up, melting the wax capsule surrounding them, and exposing them to digestive fluids.
At that point, the microrobots’ bubble jets activate, and the microrobots begin swarming. The jets are not steerable, so the technique is sort of a shotgun approach; the microrobots will not all hit the targeted area, but many will. When they do, they stick to the surface and begin releasing their medication payload. These micromotors can penetrate the mucus of the digestive tract and stay there for a long time.