The study scientists discovering the basics; explaining that how the pressure sensing Piezo proteins will be working. By this the study illuminating the basic mechanism of the Piezo proteins; which function as sensors in the body for mechanical stimuli such as touch; bladder fullness, and blood pressure. The discovery is a feat of basic science that also opens up many new paths of investigation into the roles of Piezo proteins in human diseases and potential new therapeutic strategies.
According to this study confirming that this complex protein’s structure; and showing essentially how it can convert mechanical stimuli into an electrical signal. Showing that tension on the cell membrane in which Piezo1 is embedded can flatten and widen the protein’s structure. As Piezo1 and Piezo2 are very large and complex proteins with unique structures.
They are embedded within the membranes of certain cell types, and their function is to transduce mechanical force on cells into electrical signals that alter cell activity. Piezo1 proteins work for example in bladder cells to detect when the bladder is full, and in blood vessel-lining cells to detect and help regulate changes in blood pressure.
Mechanism of the piezo proteins
Piezo2 proteins work in sensory nerve endings in the skin and joints; helping to mediate the senses of touch, pain, and proprioception the sense of how one’s limbs are arranged. Advances in imaging techniques have enabled scientists in recent years; to determine the basic structure of Piezo1 a structure that Piezo2 is thought to mostly share.
From above this structure has a three-armed, propeller or triskelion appearance. From the side it looks like a shallow bowl embedded in the cell membrane; with an ion channel at its center. The latter, when opened, allows a flow of calcium and other positively charged ions into the cell. The basic mechanism by which mechanical force opens the ion channel has remained mysterious.
They combined cryo-electron microscopy with a less well-known technique called high-speed atomic force microscopy; which produces an image of an object essentially by feeling its surface with a super-sensitive mechanical probe. They showed with these methods that Piezo1 is a springy structure that normally bends the cell membrane where it sits, but will flatten out when; for example, a mechanical force is applying to the cell membrane.
Moreover, given this wide range of cell types in organs including the lungs, bladder, intestines; and pancreas, as well as in blood vessels and the sensory nervous system; but the discovery of the basic Piezo-protein mechanism could lead to new ways of understanding; and treating many human diseases. But this finding leading to a great many predictions; about Piezo proteins’ roles in disease that we and others can now go and investigate