The breakdown process is called saccharification; The single sugar components producing; calling monosaccharides, can be fermenting into bioethanol or biobutanol; alcohols that using as fuel. By developing a 2 step method to more efficiently break down carbohydrates into their single sugar components; a critical process in producing green fuel.
By considering attention being focusing on the utilization of homogenous acids and enzymes for saccharification; Enzymatic saccharification is seeing to be a reasonable prospect since it offers the potential for higher yields, lower energy costs, and it’s more environmentally friendly. The use of enzymes to break down the carbohydrates could actually be hindered, especially in the practical biomass such as rice straw.
Process in green fuel
A byproduct of rice harvest, rice straw consists of three complicated carbohydrates; starch, hemicellulose and cellulose. Enzymes cannot approach hemicellulose or cellulose, due to their cell wall structure and surface area, among other characteristics. They must be pre-treating to become receptive to the enzymatic activity, which can be costly.
The cost and inefficiency of enzymes is the use of solid acid catalysts; which are acids that cause chemical reactions without dissolving and becoming a permanent part of the reaction; Hemicellulose and starch degrade at 180 degrees Celsius and below, and if the resulting components are heating further; the sugars producing discompose and are converting to other by products. On the other hand, degradation of cellulose only happens at temperatures of 200 degrees Celsius and above.
In order to maximize the resulting yield of sugar from rice straw; the researchers developed a 2 step process one step for the hemicellulose and another for the cellulose. The first step requires a gentle solid acid at low temperatures; while the second step consists of harsher conditions, with a stronger solid acid and higher temperatures.
Evaluating the feasibility of our 2 step saccharification process in rice straw and other various materials such as wheat straw and corn stoke etc; modified pathways of dilute-acid catalyzed hydrolysis of HC and cellulose were also likely to occur with a solid acid catalyst with an additional pathway of direct hydrolysis of NSCs to C6; Thus, this process represents a method to increase the cost-effectiveness of bioethanol production system in an environmentally sound way.