All news from Bio-Chemistry

Plasticity Of Redox Co factors From Metalloenzymes To Redox-Active DNA

Enzymes perform very specific functions and require little energy which is why biocatalysts are also of interest to the chemical industry. The study was published in the journal Nature Reviews Chemistry. 

Professor Thomas Happe and Associate Professor Anja Hemschemeier from the Photobiotechnology workgroup at Ruhr-Universität Bochum have provided a summary on what is known about the mechanisms of enzymes in nature.

Moreover, the authors outline to future vision: artificial biocatalysts that are not protein-based, as they usually are in nature, but which are rather made from DNA. The article was published on 17 August 2018.
 

Biomaterials with 'Frankenstein proteins' Help Heal Tissue

Biomedical engineers have demonstrated that, by injecting an artificial protein made from a solution of ordered and disordered segments, to solid scaffold forms in response to body heat, and in a few weeks seamlessly integrated into tissue.

The ability to combine these segments into proteins with unique properties will allow researchers to precisely control the properties of new biomaterials for applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine . The study was published in the journal  Nature Materials.

Protein, Amino Acids & Muscle Mass

By the time the average person reaches their 60s, they will lose 30% of their muscle mass. It is possible to stay strong and independent as you age, thanks to science, and it may even be possible to have in more muscle with the proper healthy lifestyle choices.

Proteins form muscles, bones, hair, skin, and the connective tissue that hold the body together. Proteins even make up the messengers within the body including hormones, the immune system, enzymes, and brain chemicals.

Glutamine Has Powerful Gut-Healing Properties

Bone broth is renowned for reducing gut inflammation and improving digestive health. In fact, it’s a traditional superfood. But the bone broth isn’t for everyone, which is why if you’re looking to reap the powerful digestive-healing benefits of bone broth as a vegan, then you need to know about glutamine.

Amino Acid Improve Glucose Control In Diabetes

The discovery of a previously unknown effect of the amino acid alanine on cell metabolism could lead to new drugs for short-term control of blood glucose. It appears that the amino acid activates an enzyme called AMP kinase (AMPK) that increases energy production in cells.

This results in a short-term reduction in blood glucose that does not involve insulin. The study was published in the journal Molecular Metabolism.

Human Cells can Dissolve Damaging Protein Aggregates

The formation of protein complexes is a highly organized process that does not begin with the "finished" proteins. Researchers demonstrate that they form in a coordinated way when the protein subunits are synthesized.

Our findings fundamentally alter our understanding of how biologically active protein complexes form in the cell. The study was published in  Nature 
 

Single Living Cell Monitoring Of Protein

Researchers have developed a new method developed by bioengineers has disentangled the 'see-saw' balance of protein synthesis and degradation in single cells. The amount of proteins inside cells fluctuate over time and this affects various functions of the cells themselves. Cells are constantly synthesizing and degrading proteins, and studies have shown that this "see-saw" actually impacts the function of the cell itself. The study was published in Molecular Cell.

Protein Activity Associated With Cancer And Autism

Researchers have determined the function of a new family of proteins associated with cancer and autism. Cells constantly make new proteins under the guidance of the genetic programme. Proteins are chains of amino acids synthesized by a special molecular machine, the ribosome.

Amino Acid Sequence

The amino acid sequence is encoded in a template, the mRNA molecule, and the decoding and synthesis process is called translation. In order to synthesize the right protein, a ribosome must attach to mRNA, find the correct point for starting the synthesis, then read the entire coding region and release the finished protein.

All these translation stages are already relatively well understood, but the fate of the ribosome after it has finished its work remained elusive. The study was published in Molecular Cell.

Protein Complexes Assemble Before The Subunits

Researchers find that most protein complexes in yeast cells assemble before the subunits have fully formed. This mechanism might prevent the formation of toxic protein aggregates. Most cellular processes are carried out by proteins, which generally assemble into heteromeric complexes those composed of two or more distinct subunits.

Although it was thought for many years that protein subunits diffuse freely in the cell and form complexes through random collisions, this seems unlikely, given that the cellular environment is extremely crowded. The study was published in Nature.

Protein Aggregates Encode Stressful Encounters In Individual E. Coli Cells

Protein aggregates have a bad reputation in conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, but in bacteria, inheritance of aggregates by daughter cells may help protect against the same toxic stresses that triggered them in parental cells. The study was published in the journal PLOS Biology. The aggregates thus serve as a kind of inherited memory, protecting offspring against the challenges experienced by their ancestors.