More and more bacteria are resistant to available antibiotics. A team of chemists now presents a new approach: they have identified important enzymes in the metabolism of staphylococci. Blocking these enzymes in a targeted manner would allow the pathogens to be starved.
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Researchers found that the filamin A-Drp1 complex mediates mitochondrial fission in a mouse model of hypoxic heart cells. Results show that hypoxic stress brought about the interaction of filamin A with Drp1 and increased Drp1 activity in heart cells. This process led to mitochondrial fragmentation and cell senescence. Further investigation demonstrated that the drug cilnidipine suppressed Drp1-filamin A complex formation and preserved heart cell function.
Chemical engineers are determining how increasing the concentrations of polymers in solution changes the structure of cross-linked gels. The structure of cross-linked polymeric gels is very similar to soft tissue? which is one reason that understanding this material is so critical, according to Kelly Schultz, assistant professor in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at Lehigh University.
Mitochondria have their own DNA, but the 13 genes in human mitochondria – along with DNA sequences for tRNAs, rRNAs and some small peptides – are massively overshadowed by the 20,000 genes in the human nucleus. However, these diminutive mitochondria may have a strong influence on cellular metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic diseases like heart failure or obesity.
A professor at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) is examining aging on the molecular level, examining how the lipids found in our bodies, particularly those in our cell membranes, change as we age, and how those changes may affect bone and muscle strength, brain health, and our propensity for age-related diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. With a two-year, nearly $ 421,000 grant from the National Institutes of Health, Carissa Perez Olsen hopes to gain a better understanding of the role of lipids play in longevity and long-term health.
Toxic protein assemblies, or "amyloids," long considered to be key drivers in many neuromuscular diseases, also play a beneficial role in the development of healthy muscle tissue, University of Colorado Boulder researchers have found.
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have attracted great interest as delivery vehicles in medicine, with potential for the development of novel therapeutic agents or cosmetic products. Biological membranes are typically waterproof to almost all compounds with a molecular weight greater than 500 Da.
The difference between nucleosides vs. nucleotides involves the presence or absence of a phosphate group. A nucleoside consists of a nucleobase and a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) whereas a nucleotide contains a nucleobase, a sugar, and one or several phosphate groups. Hence, the main difference is nucleotides have phosphate groups and nucleosides do not.
A research team has identified a method to analyze biomolecules and their inhomogeneous charge distributions with carbon nanotube thin film transistors. Researchers have identified a technique to detect, measure and analyze biomolecules with complicated charge distributions. The study was published in the Journal of Applied Physics.
A correspondent sent along this item, celebrating the inventor of something that’s so ubiquitous in molecular biology and protein chemistry that you have to think for a moment to realize that it had an inventor: the ribbon diagram. That’s Jane Richardson of Duke, who started there in 1969, back when there were only about 20 entries in what was not yet the PDB because that hadn’t been invented yet, either.
A recent study looked at one of the most essential enzymes in medicine to aid better, and more cost-effective design of drugs. The mechanisms and actions of heat-resistant enzymes are being investigated to aid better, more cost-effective drug design.
The research was co-authored by Dr. Nitin Jain, UT Biochemistry and Cellular and Molecular Biology Associate Professor, and graduate student Sara Lemmonds. It is focused on Cytochrome P450, an enzyme that occurs naturally in the body and other environments, and one that is critical in metabolizing over 90% of pharmaceutical drugs.
The study was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
The brilliant physicist Richard Feynman famously said that, in principle, biology can be explained by understanding the wiggling and jiggling of atoms. A new research explains how this 'wiggling and jiggling' of the atoms in enzymes the proteins that make biological reactions happen is 'choreographed' to make them work at a particular temperature.
Enzyme catalysis is essential to life, and this research is based on how enzymes have evolved and adapted, enabling organisms to evolve to live at different temperatures.