Viruses plague bacteria just as viruses like influenza plague humans. Some of the largest of these so-called bacteriophages have now been found in the human gut; where they periodically devastate bacteria just as seasonal outbreaks of flu lay humans low; according to a new study led by University of California, Berkeley, scientists. These “megaphages” —…
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Professor Amiram Goldblum and his team at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem’s Institute for Drug Research have discovered 27 new molecules. These molecules all activate a special protein called PPAR-delta and have the potential to treat fatty liver disease, obesity, diabetic nephrotoxicity, and to heal wounds. The first is Fatty Liver Disease News of these…
Researchers studying p53, the heralded cancer-fighting ‘guardian of the genome,’ found that the human protein also plays a role in promoting tumors, in addition to suppressing them. They found that the PUMA protein works inside the cell’s mitochondria to switch energy production processes and stimulate cancer growth. Scientists at the University of California San Diego…
Research uncovers previously unknown effects of fasting, including notably increased metabolic activity and possible anti-aging effects. Fasting may help people lose weight, but new research suggests going without food may also boost human metabolic activity, generate antioxidants, and help reverse some effects of aging. “Our research is on aging and metabolism for many years. We…
Despite the strong association between diabetes and dementia, how insulin deficiency affects brain function remains unclear. A recent study published in The FASEB Journal used a mouse model to investigate this mechanism.
Researchers at have discovered that branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in tumours can be targeted to prevent and treat cancer. Together with collaborators from the United States and National Cancer Centre Singapore (NCCS), they found that some cancers potently suppress the catabolism (breakdown) of BCAAs. This leads to BCAAs accumulating in tumours and activating a known pro-oncogenic pathway called mTOR.
A newly discovered regulatory mechanism helps the body control the rate of fat metabolism, according to a new study publishing in the open-access journal PLOS Biology by Ligong Chen of Tsinghua University in Beijing and colleagues. The finding may lead to new drugs to help burn stored fat and reduce weight.
Scientists have traditionally thought that DNA binding proteins use patterns in the genome's code of As, Cs, Ts, and Gs to guide them to the right location, with a given protein only binding to a specific sequence of letters. In a new study published in Cell Systems, scientists discovered that proteins must rely on another clue to know where to bind: the DNA's three-dimensional shape.
Researchers at Queen's University Belfast have developed a highly innovative new enzyme biomarker test that has the potential to indicate diseases and bacterial contamination saving time, money and possibly lives. The test, developed by scientists at the Institute for Global Food Security at Queen's, can detect enzyme markers of disease known as proteases in humans, animals and food products.
Dr Claire McVey, Queen's researcher and co-author on the study published in leading journal Nano Research, explains: "Not only is the test cheap to produce, but it can be used anywhere and is not reliant on laboratory conditions. Eliminating the need to carry out tests in a laboratory setting is life-changing. As well as being cost-effective, it means faster diagnosis."
Researchers from North Carolina State University have developed an artificial enzymatic pathway for synthesizing isoprenoids, or terpenes, in E. coli. This shorter, more efficient, cost-effective and customizable pathway transforms E. coli into a factory that can produce terpenes for use in everything from cancer drugs to biofuels.
Ketone bodies (acetoacetic acid, beta-hydroxybutyric acid) are metabolites that can be used as energy sources like glucose and fatty acids. They can be converted into acetyl-CoA, which produces energy via the Krebs cycle in the mitochondria, and are typically used as an alternative energy source during starvation, fasting, or periods of high-intensity exercise.
However, their utilization rate in the heart and effect on disease conditions was poorly understood. Researchers have measured the ketone body utilization rate in the heart and confirmed that it decreases when the heart is in a state of reduced blood flow (myocardial ischemia).
The effects of linoleic acid on the human body are largely dependent on genes, a new study from the University of Eastern Finland shows. Linoleic acid is an essential fatty acid. People carrying different variants of the FADS1 gene had a different inflammatory response and different changes in their fasting glucose levels when supplementing their diet by linoleic acid rich sunflower oil.
This was the first time these associations were studied in humans. The study was conducted in collaboration with Karolinska Institutet, and the findings were published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.