All news from Bio-Chemistry

Biochemistry

Innate Immunity Protein Determined

UT Southwestern researchers used cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to determine the near-atomic structure of the smallest membrane protein solved to date. Their work could lead to better immunotherapies in cancer and improved treatments for autoimmune diseases like lupus. Cryo-EM — the technology credited with the “resolution revolution” underway in structural biology — uses a massive microscope…

DNA in healthy development

Key Mechanism: Linked To Healthy Development

An R-loop is a three-stranded nucleic acid structure; composed of a DNA:RNA hybrid and the associated non-template single-stranded DNA. R-loops may have formtaion in a variety of circumstances, and may be tolerated or cleared by cellular components. The term “R-loop” was given to reflect the similarity of these structures to D-loops; the “R” in this case…

Biochemistry

Light On Disease-fighting Protein

X-ray and electron microscopy techniques help unfold the story of protein chaperones. A combination of X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) assisted in a collaborative effort to obtain the highest-resolution structure of the fungal protein Hsp104, which may serve to hinder the formation of certain degenerative diseases. The team, whose members included researchers from the…

Metabolism

Flaxseed Fiber Ferments In Gut, Reduce Obesity

Research in mice suggests that fermentation of flaxseed fibers in the gut changes; the microbiota to improve metabolic health; and protect against diet-induced obesity. The study, published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism; was chosen as an APSselect article. The organisms that live in the digestive tract (gut microbiota) play a…

Biochemistry

Cancers Resistant To Therapy: Fatty Acids Plays A Role

Researchers now demonstrate that certain tumor cells use an alternative — previously unexplored — pathway to produce fatty acids. This finding can explain the resistance of particular cancer types to fatty acid metabolism inhibition. Fatty acid metabolism is an essential process in tumor growth and proliferation. Despite different attempts to block fatty acid metabolism; as…

Biochemstry

Cell-free Protein Synthesis: More Flexible & Accessible

Researchers have radically simplified the method for cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS), a technique that could become fundamental to medical research. Synthesizing proteins is essential for multiple types of pharmaceutical and genetic research. For years, proteins could only be synthesized within live cells. CFPS provides the novel ability to biosynthesize proteins in a test tube; in…

educating immune cells

Lipid-filled Particle: To Keep Fat Healthy

Researchers have discovered that fat tissue releases a lipid-filled particle that has a role in immune function and metabolism. The study, in mice, was published online in the journal Science. Obesity appears to activate the immune system, contributing to type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and other disorders. Understanding how fat tissue regulates immune response…

Metabolism

More Protein & Fewer Calories: Lose Weight Safely

A high-protein, low-calorie diet helps older adults with obesity lose more weight, maintain more muscle mass, improve bone quality and lose “bad” fat, according to results from a new randomized controlled trial led by Wake Forest University researcher Kristen Beavers.Four research papers based on the study results have been accepted for publication in peer-reviewed journals…

Metabolism

Insight Into Protein Formation: Understanding Of diseases

Ribosome-associated quality control (RQC) pathways monitor and respond to ribosome stalling. Using in vivo UV-crosslinking and mass spectrometry, we identified a C-terminal region in Hel2/Rqt1 as an RNA binding domain. Complementary crosslinking and sequencing data for Hel2 revealed binding to 18S rRNA and translated mRNAs. Hel2 preferentially bound mRNAs upstream and downstream of the stop…

Cardiac & Metabolic Diseases

Clusterins' Link To Cardiac & Metabolic Diseases

During a study spanning nearly a decade, researchers at The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute and Houston Methodist Cancer Center have linked the protein clusterin—for the first time—to many different facets of cardiometabolic syndrome risk through its actions in the liver. Cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) is a cluster of conditions occurring…

Coacervates

Membraneless Protocells: Clues To Formation Of Early Life

Membraneless protocells — called complex coacervates — can bring together molecules of RNA allowing the RNAs to perform certain reactions, an important step in the origin of life on Earth. The Image shows droplets of complex coacervates as seen under a microscope. The inset shows RNA molecules (cyan) are highly concentrated inside the droplets compared…

Metabolism

Gut Immune Cells: Responsible For Metabolism Changes

A new study has shown that the immune cells within the gut could be related to the rate of metabolism. The results of the new study titled, “Gut intraepithelial T cells calibrate metabolism and accelerate cardiovascular disease,” are published in the latest issue of the journal Nature. The researchers led by Shun He, used genetically…