Anatomical study finding that the sick mitochondria that pollute the cells; which cause telomere damage in the cell. Researchers showing the evidence for the long-held belief; that sick mitochondria pollute the cells they are supposed to be supplying with power. Which involving a causal experiment to kick off a mitochondrial chain reaction; that wreaks havoc on the cell, all the way down to the genetic level.
Once the light off, there is no more singlet oxygen anymore; but study will disrupting the electron transport chain, so after 48 hours, the mitochondria are still leaking out reactive oxygen; but the cells are not dying, they are just sitting there erupting. At this point, the nucleus of the cell is being pummeling by free radicals. It shrinks and contorts. The cell stops dividing. Yet, the DNA seems oddly intact.
That is, until the researchers start looking specifically at the telomeres; the protective caps on the end of each chromosome that allow them to continue replicating and replenishing. Telomeres are extremely small, so DNA damage restricted to telomeres alone may not show up in a whole-genome test, like the one the researchers had been using up to this point.
The telomere damage
But the telomeres the protective caps on the end of each chromosome that allow them to continue replicating and replenishing. Telomeres are extremely small, so DNA damage restricted to telomeres alone may not show up in a whole-genome test, like the one the researchers had been using up to this point.
So, to see the genetic effects of the mitochondrial meltdown, the researchers had to light up those tiny endcaps with fluorescent tags, and lo and behold, they found clear signs of telomeres’ fragility and breakage. Then, in a critical step, the researchers repeating the whole experiment on cells with inactivating mitochondria.
Mitochondria to perpetuate
Without the mitochondria to perpetuate the reaction, there was no buildup of free radicals inside the cell and no telomere damage. Basically, study shut the machine off before it had a chance to do any damage. These findings could be using for improving photodynamic cancer therapy; which involving bombarding solid tumors with reactive oxygen species using light delivering with fiber optic cables.
These experiments is that inhibiting ATM; a protein that signals DNA damage, magnified the damaging effects of the reactive oxygen species spewed out by the mitochondria. The cells not only shriveled, but also died. By combining photodynamic therapy with ATM inhibition, it may be possible to design a system that effectively kills cancer cells with light.