All news from Anatomy

Attentional Fluctuations Variability In Primary Visual Cortex

Researchers wanted to know the significance of that variability and whether portions of that variability might be due to changes in an individual's focus of attention. Take a look at your favorite mug; it probably looks the same as it always has, but your neurons may not think so. Neurons are firing in response to the visual stimuli they see but they don't fire in exactly the same way every time. The study published in Nature Communications.

Shape Of Ear Affects Hearing

Researchers have discovered that filling in an external part of the ear with a small piece of silicone drastically changes people’s ability to tell whether a sound came from above or below. But given time. Ears are a peculiarly individual piece of anatomy. Those little fleshy seashells, whether they stick out or hang low, can be instantly recognizable in family portraits.

And they aren’t just for show. The study was published in the Journal of Neuroscience, the brain adjusts to the new shape, regaining the ability to pinpoint sounds with almost the same accuracy as before.r

Newly Identified Role for Inhibition in Cerebellar Plasticity and Behavior

Almost everyone is familiar with the unique mixture of surprise and confusion that occurs after making a mistake during an everyday movement. It's a fairly startling experience stumbling on a step or accidentally missing your mouth when taking a drink.

This momentary bewilderment is due to the fact that our brains have an extraordinary capacity for learning skilled movements. So much so that our routine actions, such as climbing stairs, become second nature. For the most part, we don't even consciously think about them that is until we make a mistake.

The Reason For Our Eyebrows, Researches Finally Sorted out

The most noticeable difference between the modern human face and that of the hunter-gatherers, who lived on Earth over 200,000 years ago, is the forehead. While we now have flat, smooth foreheads with visible eyebrows, our ancestors sported a pronounced brow ridge.

Experts have always believed that the thick rim, and the evolution to the beautiful tufts of facial hair, served a physiological function. Now, a team of scientists from UK’s University of York and Portugal’s Universidade do Algarve suggest the distinct facial features help with our social relationships.

Complex Network Of Brain And Structures

Researchers have assumed the same for neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, and zoom in on the brain to look for potential localized causes, such as particular molecules or genes. For example, they've found that the brains of Alzheimer's patients contain proteins that have folded in the wrong way. Sometimes a disease is the handiwork of a clear culprit: the invasion of a bacterium, or the mutation of a gene. 

Synthetic Matrix Delivers Healing Stem Cells To Injured Aged Muscles

Researchers examined a molecular matrix, a hydrogel, to deliver muscle stem cells called muscle satellite cells (MuSCs) directly to injured muscle tissue in patients whose muscles don't regenerate well. In lab experiments on mice, the hydrogel successfully delivered MuSCs to injured, aged muscle tissue and boosted the healing process while protecting the stem cells from harsh immune reactions.

A car accident leaves an aging patient with severe muscle injuries that won't heal. Treatment with muscle stem cells from a donor might restore damaged tissue, but doctors are unable to deliver them effectively. A new method may help change this. The study was published in the journal Science Advances

Peri-arterial Autonomic Innervation of the Human Ear

The study aimed at investigating perivascular co-transmitters of vasomotor control in the auricle. Another aim was to provide three-dimensional arterial maps of the auricle, as a proxy of periarterial autonomic innervation. Twelve paired human auricles were used to visualize the arteries following Spalteholz clearing and μ-CT-based reconstruction.

Perivascular innervation staining was conducted using anti-tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), anti-neuropeptide Y (NPY), anti-vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and anti-choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Auricular vasomotor responses are considered to be signs of clinical conditions including a migraine. The mechanisms of auricular vasomotor control are still debatable. 

New Method to Repair Cells Deep Inside The Ear

Researchers have found a new approach to fix cells deep inside the ear, which could help millions of people who suffer hearing loss. Researchers at USC and Harvard have developed a new approach to repairing cells deep inside the ear, a potential remedy that could restore hearing for millions of elderly people. The lab study demonstrates a novel way for a drug to zero in on damaged nerves and cells inside the ear. It's a potential remedy for a problem that afflicts two-thirds of people over 70 years and 17% of all adults in the United States.