All news from Anatomy

Stem Cells And Their Role In Tissue Regeneration

Cells in the body have specific purposes, but stem cells are cells that do not yet have a specific role and can become almost any cell that is required. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that can turn into specific cells, as the body needs them.

Scientists and doctors are interested in stem cells as they help to explain how some functions of the bodywork, and how they sometimes go wrong. Stem cells also show promise for treating some diseases that currently have no cure.

Applications Of Nanoparticles In Tissue Engineering

Tissue engineering (TE) is an interdisciplinary field integrating engineering , material science and medical biology that aims to develop biological substitutes to repair, replace, retain, or enhance tissue and organ-level functions.

Current TE methods face obstacle including a lack of appropriate biomaterials, ineffective cell growth and lack of techniques for capturing appropriate physiological architectures as well as the unstable and insufficient production of growth factors to stimulate cell communication and proper response.

Brain Cells In Human Brain Can Be Counted

Researchers at the Universities of Bonn and Tübingen are now one step closer to answering this question. They were able to demonstrate that some brain cells fire mainly for quantities of three, others for quantities of four and others for other quantities.

A similar effect can be observed for digits: In humans, the neurons activated in response to a "2" are for instance not the same as the neurons activated for a "5". The results also demonstrate how we learn to handle number symbols in comparison to quantities. The study is published online in the journal Neuron.

Segregation Of Chromosomes Affected By Tissues

Biologists discover that the environment surrounding a cell plays an integral role in its ability to accurately segregate its chromosomes. New research by a group of MIT biologists reveals that this long-held assumption is incorrect.

In a paper published this week, they describe how some types of cells rely on signals from surrounding tissue in order to maintain chromosome stability and segregate accurately.  All growth and reproduction rely on a cell’s ability to replicate its chromosomes and produce accurate copies of itself. Every step of this process takes place within that cell.

The study was published online in the journal Cell. Based on this observation, scientists have studied the replication and segregation of chromosomes as a phenomenon exclusively internal to the cell. They traditionally rely on warm nutritional cultures that promote growth but bear little resemblance to the cell’s external surroundings while in its natural environment.

New Human Brain Cell Discovered

Researchers have identified a new brain cell thought to be unique to humans found in part of the brain linked to consciousness. Much of the human brain remains a mystery to scientists. It’s the reason we sit at the top of the food chain, but the question of what makes our brains different to other animals remains a somewhat elusive one for neuroscientists. The study published in the journal Nature Neuroscience identified a new and mysterious type of human brain cell.

Vascular Channels Connect Skull Bone Marrow And The Brain Surface

According to a new study of mice and humans, tiny tunnels run from skull bone marrow to the lining of the brain and may provide a direct route for immune cells responding to injuries caused by stroke and other brain disorders. Bone marrow, the spongy tissue inside most of our bones, produces red blood cells as well as immune cells that help fight off infections and heal injuries. The study was published in Nature Neuroscience.

Morphophysiological Of Human Brain Cell

Scientists have uncovered a new type of human brain cell that has never been seen in mice and other well-studied laboratory animals. They are really can't understand the specialty of the human brain. Studying the differences at the level of cells and circuits is a good place to start, and now we have new tools to do just that. The study was published in the journal Nature Neuroscience.

New Method For The Effectiveness Of Neurodegeneration

Researchers have developed a new and improved method to judge the effectiveness of experimental therapies for neurodegeneration the progressive loss of neurons. Neurons or nerve cells are hugely important to our daily lives.

These specialized cells collect and process the large amounts of information that enter our bodies via our senses, control our muscles and organs, and form our thoughts and memories. When these cells become unhealthy, it leads to diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, ALS, glaucoma and chronic pain.  The study was published in PLOS ONE. Johnstone says his study uses the first automated test specifically designed for measuring degeneration of sensory neurons grown in a lab.