All news from Anatomy

High Callous Traits Show Differences In Brain Structure

A study in Biological Psychiatry characterizes the neural profile of callousness in children

Children with elevated levels of callous traits—such as a lack of remorse and disregard for other people's feelings—show widespread differences in brain structure compared with children with lower levels of the traits, according to a new study published in Biological Psychiatry. The differences, which included large- and small-scale structural alterations, support the idea of callous traits as a neurodevelopmental condition.

Neurogenesis in The Mammalian Adult Brain, New Highlights

A team of researchers at Baylor College of Medicine, the Texas Heart Institute and Texas Children's Hospital have developed a powerful new approach to understanding the formation of new neurons in the mammalian adult brain. Published in the journal Cell Reports , this work opens exciting new pathways that can be further developed to repair malfunctioning brain circuits.

More Insights: Ion Channels Added to the Brain Remote Control

By enabling super-fast remote control of specific cells, light-activated proteins allow researchers to study the function of individual neurons within a large network. Now one of the pioneers of 'optogenetics' and colleagues have created two new tools—protein pores which when illuminated allow Ca2+ into cells or K+ out—for switching neurons on or off using light. Published in Frontiers in Neuroscience, their study shows that these synthetic 'ion channels' can be used to control specific neurons, even in live animals.

Brain Hears and Fears, More Insights

How is it that a sound can send a chill down your spine? By observing individual brain cells of mice, scientists at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) are understanding how a sound can incite fear. 

Investigator Bo Li focuses on a part of the mouse brain called the amygdala where sights, sounds, and other stimuli take on positive or negative associations through experience. The continuous process of learning and unlearning that occurs in the amygdala appears impaired in people with anxiety disorders or major depression. Understanding brain cell, or neuron activity in the amygdala could result in better treatments.