MicroCT scans of the Australopithecus fossil known as Little Foot shows that the brain of this ancient human relative was small and shows features that are similar to our own brain and others that are closer to our ancestor shared with living chimpanzees.
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Scientists have taken a key step toward improving an emerging class of treatments for Parkinson's disease. The advance could markedly improve the next generation of therapies for the condition, which affects around one in 350 people in the UK.
While chronic opioid use among patients with musculoskeletal pain declined overall, the risk for chronic use was highest among those with low back and multiple anatomical site pain, according to findings published in Annals of Internal Medicine.
A study in Biological Psychiatry characterizes the neural profile of callousness in children
Children with elevated levels of callous traits—such as a lack of remorse and disregard for other people's feelings—show widespread differences in brain structure compared with children with lower levels of the traits, according to a new study published in Biological Psychiatry. The differences, which included large- and small-scale structural alterations, support the idea of callous traits as a neurodevelopmental condition.
Study has confirmed that some vials of a hormone used in discontinued medical treatments contained seeds of a protein implicated in Alzheimer's disease New Insights Molecular Mechanisms Of Amyloid In Alzheimer's Disease and are able to seed amyloid pathology in mice.
More than half of cancer survivors suffer from cognitive impairment from chemotherapy that lingers for months or years after the cancer is gone.
Scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have developed a new tool described as a "flight data recorder" for developing cells, illuminating the paths cells take as they progress from one type to another.
A team of researchers at Baylor College of Medicine, the Texas Heart Institute and Texas Children's Hospital have developed a powerful new approach to understanding the formation of new neurons in the mammalian adult brain. Published in the journal Cell Reports , this work opens exciting new pathways that can be further developed to repair malfunctioning brain circuits.
New research from Cedars-Sinai has identified neurons that play a role in how people recognize errors they make, a discovery that may have implications for the treatment of conditions including obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia.
By enabling super-fast remote control of specific cells, light-activated proteins allow researchers to study the function of individual neurons within a large network. Now one of the pioneers of 'optogenetics' and colleagues have created two new tools—protein pores which when illuminated allow Ca2+ into cells or K+ out—for switching neurons on or off using light. Published in Frontiers in Neuroscience, their study shows that these synthetic 'ion channels' can be used to control specific neurons, even in live animals.
How is it that a sound can send a chill down your spine? By observing individual brain cells of mice, scientists at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) are understanding how a sound can incite fear.
Investigator Bo Li focuses on a part of the mouse brain called the amygdala where sights, sounds, and other stimuli take on positive or negative associations through experience. The continuous process of learning and unlearning that occurs in the amygdala appears impaired in people with anxiety disorders or major depression. Understanding brain cell, or neuron activity in the amygdala could result in better treatments.