All news from Anatomy

Second visual system in mouse cerebral cortex: Surprise discovery

The visual system is probably the best understood part of the brain. Over the past 75 years, neuroscientists have assembled a detailed account of how light waves entering your eyes allow you to recognize your grandmother's face, to track a hawk in flight, or to read this sentence. But a new study by UC San Francisco researchers is calling a fundamental aspect of vision science into question, showing that even the best-studied parts of the brain can still hold plenty of surprises.

Second Visual System in Mouse Cerebral Cortex Discovered

The visual system is probably the best understood part of the brain. Over the past 75 years, neuroscientists have assembled a detailed account of how light waves entering your eyes allow you to recognize your grandmother's face, to track to hawk in flight, or to read this sentence. But a new study by UC San Francisco is calling a fundamental aspect of vision science question, showing that even the best-studied parts of the brain can still hold plenty of surprises.

Brain Circuits Optimize Themselves, Neuroscientists

Neuroscientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, previously showed that synaptic learning mechanisms in the brain's cortex are dependent on feedback from deeper brain regions. They have now precisely deciphered how this feedback gates synaptic strengthening by switching on and off particular inhibitory neurons.

This study, which can be read in  Neuron, not only constitutes an important milestone in our understanding of the mechanisms for perceptual learning but may also offer insight into computerized learning systems and artificial intelligence. 

DNA Replication: Unravelling the Mystery

A team has unlocked a old mystery about how a critical cellular process called DNA replication is regulated.  A team of Florida State University has unlocked a century-old mystery about how a critical cellular process is regulated and what that could mean for the future study of genetics.

Formation of Long-term Memory Encoded Engram Neurons

While long-term memory (LTM) is known to be encoded in specific neural cells, engram neurons, it has been unclear how these engram neurons are formed during training. In Drosophila, aversive olfactory LTM is formed by repetitive training trials with rest intervals between training trial, spaced training.

A Review on Autophagy in Neuronal Cells

Autophagy is a cellular degradation process that can cause the death of a cell in certain conditions. Autophagy is necessary to maintain cellular homeostasis by clearing out damaged cellular organelles and proteins through certain pathways. Mitochondria are cell organelles responsible for the constant supply of energy to maintain cellular physiology and energy metabolism.

A Novel Way Synapses Can Regulate Neuronal Circuits, Findings

The fundamental process of information transfer from neuron to neuron occurs through a relay of electrical and chemical signaling at the synapse, the junction between neurons. Electrical signals, called action potentials, cause voltage-gated calcium channels on the presynaptic neuron to open. The influence of calcium through the channels triggers the release of neurotransmitters (the chemical messengers), which travels across the synapse to the next neuron in the relay, passing along the information.

Impaired Glial Cell Maturation Associated with Huntington's Disease

The brain's support cells, the so-called glial cells, play a main role in the development of the genetic brain disorder Huntington's disease, for which there is currently no treatment. In a new study, an international group of researchers from the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences at the University of Copenhagen, among others, has now mapped important, hitherto unknown mechanisms in glial cells in a brain suffering from Huntington's disease. The new research results have been published in the prestigious journal Cell Stem Cell.