A new study estimates that young children are particularly vulnerable to otitis media (OM) which globally affects over 80% of children below the age of 3 years. Although there is convincing evidence for an association between environmental tobacco smoke exposure and Otitis media in children, the relationship with ambient air pollution is not clear.
They aimed to systematically review the literature on the relationship between ambient air pollution exposure and OM in children. Middle ear inflammation, commonly known as otitis media (OM), is a multifactorial disease of the middle ear, with a high prevalence among young children.
Acute OM (AOM) is characterized by infection of the middle ear with associated symptoms. OM with effusion (OME) is characterized by middle ear effusion and inflammation without infection. Chronic Suppurative OM (CSOM) presents as purulent otorrhea associated with perforation of the tympanic membrane.
Air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM), trigger oxidative responses and inflammation in lung epithelium leading to asthma and allergies. Animal studies provide evidence that air pollutants, such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), impair the mucociliary function of the Eustachian tube and increase middle ear mucus secretion.
Similarly, evidence from epidemiological studies supports a link between air pollution and OM; however, there has been no recent comprehensive systematic review of these investigations in children. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review studies investigating both short and long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and their relationship with OM in children, to assess the weight of evidence for causality.
However, there are inconsistencies in the results between studies, which may be related to methodological differences in exposure assessment strategies, the types of air pollutants examined and the timing of exposure windows, as well as geographical variations.
The case-crossover and time-series studies also found significant associations between outdoor air pollution exposure and ED attendances for OM. Both case control studies from the USA and Mozambique investigated indoor air pollution from heating and cooking, especially related to wood smoke exposure, and found significant associations with OM.
This systematic review found that the evidence for a causal link between exposure to air pollution and OM in infants and children is strengthening, yet remains limited. Although there was a consensus that higher levels of exposure to NO2, PM, SO2, PAH and wood smoke levels are associated with a prevalence of infections of OM the effect estimates varied.
Importantly, they did not identify any birth cohort studies conducted in low income countries, where high air pollution levels occur and the communities bear highest a high burden of OM.
In recent studies, researchers shed some light into the biomarkers and mechanisms of air pollution exposure and OM, a clear mechanism has not yet been identified.