All news from Anaesthesiology

Association of Prenatal Exposure to Ambient & Air Pollution With Newborn Thyroid Function

Soot and dust alter thyroid development in fetuses before they are born in smoggy cities, raising concern about health impacts later in life, new USC research shows. It means before a doctor cuts the umbilical cord or a parent hugs a baby or a sibling gazes at the newest member of the family, the caress of air pollution already reached the womb's inner sanctum.

The timing couldn't be worse, as the researchers found that no matter when they checked, thyroid impacts were evident until the final month of gestation. This is one of the few studies to monitor air pollution effects on a developing fetus and the first to track pollution changes month by month on thyroid hormones. The newly published research paper appears in JAMA Network Open.

Nudges Help in Boosting Flu Shot Rates in Clinics

Primary care clinics experienced a significant decline in influenza vaccinations as the day progressed, researchers from Penn Medicine report in a new study published in JAMA Open Network. However, "nudging" clinical staff to order vaccines using a behavioral economics technique known as "active choice" may help curb some of that drop-off, the study suggests. The study is the first to show how clinic appointment times can influence influenza vaccination rates.

Air flow In The Human Upper Airway Using In-vitro Models

A better understanding of airflow characteristics in the upper airway (UA) is crucial in investigating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), particle sedimentation, drug delivery, and many biomedical problems. Direct visualization of airflow patterns in in-vitro models with realistic anatomical structures is a big challenge.

In this study, we constructed unique half-side transparent physical models of normal UA based on realistic anatomical structures. A smoke-wire method was developed to visualize the airflow in UA models directly.

The results revealed that the airflow through the pharynx was laminar but not turbulent under normal inspiration, which suggested that compared with turbulent models, a laminar model should be more suitable in numerical simulations. The flow predicted numerically using the laminar model was consistent with the observations in the physical models. 

Diabetes Prevention, Management: Call for Policy

The recently-released Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 has shown that the prevalence of diabetes has increased more rapidly in the less-developed States of the country. The report has also highlighted the need for policy and health system action commensurate with the disease burden in each State to ensure more effective prevention and management of diabetes.