All news from Anaesthesiology

Immune Cells in the Uterus Nourish Fetus during Early Pregnancy, study finds

A study published in the journal Immunity shows that this transient cell population helps to optimize maternal nourishment of the fetus at early stages of development. The researchers identified a specific subset of uterine natural killer cells that secrete growth-promoting factors in humans and mice, and further demonstrated that transfer of these cells can reverse impaired fetal growth in pregnant mice.

Community Practices not Following Guidelines for MRI breast cancer screening

Guidelines are not being followed to ensure that breast cancer screening of high-risk women, such as those with a strong family history of breast cancer, includes an additional MRI scan. According to Deirdre A. Hill of the University of New Mexico School of Medicine in the US, this signals a missed opportunity to use technology that can help detect breast cancer early in high-risk groups. She led a study in the Journal of General Internal Medicine which is published by Springer.

Antioxidant substances: A novel way to synthesize

Scientists from Tomsk Polytechnic University together with their colleagues from USA and Japan have projected a novel way in organic chemistry, i.e., breaking a bond between carbon and hydrogen atoms to form new organic substances. This was first to carry out “breaking” in water, a synthesized substance called arylbenziodoxaboroles. As a result, the scientists synthesized many novel phenolic substances that possess high biological and antioxidant activity. This is published in Chemistry — A European Journal.

Drones deliver blood to people in Rwanda in crisis

Keenan Wyrobek and Zipline International, the San Francisco–based drone-delivery company he cofounded, are helping to solve a problem that has long plagued doctors in some of the world's most remote regions: getting blood to patients in time to save lives when roads are impassable. The company has delivered more than 4100 units of blood in Rwanda since it started operating just over a year ago, in October 2016, Wyrobek reported at TEDMED 2017 in Palm Springs, California.

Progressive kidney disease: New compound stops it in its tracks

Progressive kidney diseases, whether caused by obesity, hypertension, diabetes, or rare genetic mutations, often have the same outcome: The cells responsible for filtering the blood are destroyed. Reporting in Science, a team led by researchers from the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School describes a new approach to prevent death in these essential kidney cells. Studying multiple animal models of kidney disease, the team discovered a compound that can impede loss of the filtration cells and restore kidney function. The work, inspired by an investigation into a genetic form of the condition, has the potential to affect therapeutic research for millions of people suffering from progressive kidney diseases.

Mechanosensory Map of Zebrafish Hair Cells could Inform Causes of Deafness

According to new research published in Nature Communications, fish sense water motion in the same way humans sense sound. Researchers discovered a gene also found in humans helps zebrafish convert water motion into electrical impulses that are sent to the brain for perception. The shared gene allows zebrafish to sense water flow direction, and it also helps cells inside the human ear sense a range of sounds.

Interaction of genes and environment caused for raise in the risk of congenital heart defects

The new study described by scientists on gene-environment interaction resulting in congenital heart defects. They showed in both mouse and fly model systems. A congenital heart defects was seen in infants of mothers having diabetes showing three to five-fold increased rate of risk. These risks were caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The molecular mechanisms with maternal diabetes disrupts normal heart developmental in genetically susceptible individuals remain unclear.

Study Unravels New Mechanism by Which Tumors Develop Resistance to Radiotherapy

A new study published in the Nature Communications discovered a key mechanism by which tumors develop resistance to radiation therapy and shown how such resistance might be overcome with drugs that are currently under development.

The study addresses a longstanding challenge: as many as 40% of large tumors develop resistance to radiotherapy, significantly complicating treatment. Overcoming such resistance could go a long way toward treating tumors, especially those that cause significant discomfort to patients and resist other modes of therapy or cannot be surgically removed.

New methods of tracking hospital nurses could help make workflow more efficient

Previous studies about nurse workflow have used time-motion study methods, which involve manually observing nurses in person or on video and then clocking how much time they spend on each task. Now, an engineer has developed a method for better tracking how nurses in an intensive care unit (ICU) spend their workday. Findings could help improve the health care delivery process in the ICU and could also be applied to other health care procedures.