They protect us from the onslaught of bacteria and viruses and also from cancer: T cells are an indispensable part of our immune system. They constantly renew their surface with thousands of highly sensitive T cell antigen receptors, which allow them to identify atypical or foreign molecules (antigens) in our body. If such antigens are detected, for example on virally infected cells or cancer cells, T cells either directly kill these cells or alarm other immune cells to start a full-blown immune response.
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In a study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, have now uncovered a mechanism by which a particular variant of a gene — human leukocyte antigen (HLA), and exposure to environmental pollutants such as cigarette smoke or vehicle exhausts work together to increase the severity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
A study estimates that a compound appears to improve stroke outcome by reducing the destructive inflammation that can continue months after a stroke. Rats consuming compound 21 following a clot-based stroke, the most common type in humans do not have a smaller stroke size but do have better memory and movement in its aftermath. The study was published in the Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism.
Researchers have found the molecular mechanism of the enzyme AsqJ, this will provide new options in the production of pharmaceutically active molecules. Practically all biochemical processes involve enzymes that accelerate chemical reactions.
Recent trends in vitamin D testing and supplementation suggest that identifying and correcting vitamin D deficiency improves health outcomes. From 2000 to 2010, the volume of 25-hydroxyvitamin D tests reimbursed by Medicare Part B increased 83-fold.
According to the study, researchers have provided new insight into how a gene associated with autoimmunity contributes to disease in humans
More sensitive cultivation methods and precise 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques have revealed that the human bladder hosts a significant microbiome and those diverse bacteria inside the bladder impact pediatric urologic diseases.
A treatment gap remains for many conditions involving damage to the liver, the body's main organ for removing toxins, among other functions. The Experimental Biology 2018 meeting (EB 2018) will feature important liver research announcements.
According to new research, chlorine, commonly used in the agriculture industry to decontaminate fresh produce, can make foodborne pathogens undetectable. The study may help explain outbreaks of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes among produce in recent years
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are a class of stem cells located in bone marrow. HSCs give rise to every type of blood cell—from the red blood cells that carry oxygen to the white blood cells of the immune system.
Bone marrow provides a niche that both houses and regulates HSCs to ensure proper formation of blood cells. However, the precise mechanisms that maintain the HSC niche are not fully understood.
A new systematic review of available evidence appearing in Nutrition Reviews indicated that consuming protein supplements with meals may be more effective at promoting weight control in adults following an exercise regimen.