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Drug Discovery: Enhancement With Human-Relevant Research

The average pre-approval cost of research and development for a successful drug is estimated to be US$2.6 billion and the number of new drugs approved per billion US dollars spent has halved roughly every 9 years since 1950.

More than 90% of drug candidates entering clinical trials fail to gain regulatory approval, mainly as a result of insufficient efficacy and/or unacceptable toxicity, because of the limited predictive value of preclinical, animal-based studies. Without significant intervention, the pipeline responsible for new drug production is predicted to dry up completely within 50 years.

Patients Preferences For Diagnostic Testing In The Emergency Department

Diagnostic testing is common during emergency department visits. They hypothesized that a patient's willingness to undergo diagnostic testing is influenced by the potential benefit, risk, and personal cost. Patient preferences for diagnostic testing differed significantly across levels of risk, benefit, and cost of diagnostic testing, but the cost was the strongest and most consistent factor associated with a decreased desire for testing. The study was published in the journal Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM).