All news from Anaesthesiology

Artificial Enzyme Activates Gene Switch, New Finding

Complex reaction cascades can be triggered in artificial molecular systems: Scientists have constructed an enzyme that can penetrate a mammalian cell and accelerate the release of a hormone. This then activates a gene switch that triggers the creation of a fluorescent protein. The findings were reported by researchers from the NCCR Molecular Systems Engineering, led by the University of Basel and ETH Zurich.

Moderate Consumption Of Alcohol Can Protect The Heart

Research has shown that for many people, moderate consumption of alcohol can protect the heart, but the reason for this is poorly understood. They conducted that this cardioprotective mechanism may be associated with activation of ALDH2 (aldehyde dehydrogenase-2), a mitochondrial enzyme that helps rid the organism of both the toxic byproducts of alcohol digestion and a type of reactive molecule produced in heart cells that can suffer major damage, such as that caused by a heart attack.

The study was published in Cardiovascular Research. Our data suggest moderate exposure to ethanol causes minor stress in heart cells, but not enough to kill them. Intracellular signaling is reorganized as a result, and heart cells eventually create a biochemical memory to protect against stress, also known as preconditioning. When the cells are submitted to a higher level of stress, they know how to deal with it.

New Treatments For Sinus Conditions

A new discovery about how the immune system responds to common sinus infections and asthma could explain why patients develop these issues in the first place and ultimately may lead to improved targeted therapies. Researchers have identified the source of the inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-25 (IL-25), an immune molecule that recruits a subset of inflammatory cells.

IL-25 Molecule

Common respiratory disorders like chronic rhinosinusitis and asthma have recently been linked to elevated levels of IL-25, but the cellular source of it in the respiratory system was unknown until now. The study was published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.