A new mathematical simulation approach predicts the efficacy of pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) medications, which help prevent HIV infection. The framework, presented in PLOS Computational Biology by Sulav Duwal and Max von Kleist of Freie Universität Berlin and colleagues, could help streamline development of new PrEP treatments.
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Complex reaction cascades can be triggered in artificial molecular systems: Scientists have constructed an enzyme that can penetrate a mammalian cell and accelerate the release of a hormone. This then activates a gene switch that triggers the creation of a fluorescent protein. The findings were reported by researchers from the NCCR Molecular Systems Engineering, led by the University of Basel and ETH Zurich.
Sleep disorders are often the first sign of serious neurological diseases. Neurologists should inquire extensively about the quality of their patients' sleep. In rare neuroimmunological diseases sleep and wakefulness also frequently play an important role.
There is no strong evidence that vitamin D protects against pregnancy-induced high blood pressure (hypertension) or pre-eclampsia, conclude researchers in The BMJ today
Research has shown that for many people, moderate consumption of alcohol can protect the heart, but the reason for this is poorly understood. They conducted that this cardioprotective mechanism may be associated with activation of ALDH2 (aldehyde dehydrogenase-2), a mitochondrial enzyme that helps rid the organism of both the toxic byproducts of alcohol digestion and a type of reactive molecule produced in heart cells that can suffer major damage, such as that caused by a heart attack.
The study was published in Cardiovascular Research. Our data suggest moderate exposure to ethanol causes minor stress in heart cells, but not enough to kill them. Intracellular signaling is reorganized as a result, and heart cells eventually create a biochemical memory to protect against stress, also known as preconditioning. When the cells are submitted to a higher level of stress, they know how to deal with it.
A new discovery about how the immune system responds to common sinus infections and asthma could explain why patients develop these issues in the first place and ultimately may lead to improved targeted therapies. Researchers have identified the source of the inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-25 (IL-25), an immune molecule that recruits a subset of inflammatory cells.
Common respiratory disorders like chronic rhinosinusitis and asthma have recently been linked to elevated levels of IL-25, but the cellular source of it in the respiratory system was unknown until now. The study was published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.
Scientists conducting one of the largest full DNA analyses of a rare disease have identified a gene mutation associated with a perplexing brain condition that blinds and paralyzes patients
Value in Health, the official journal of ISPOR (the professional society for health economics and outcomes research), announced today the publication of new guidance regarding the selection and evaluation of wearable devices for use in regulatory trials and to support labeling claims.
A blood test for people at risk for rheumatoid arthritis can identify those who will develop the disease within 3 years, new research shows. The findings confirm results from a study of 21 people with autoantibodies indicating risk for rheumatoid arthritis