According to a study, researchers determined that reproductive markers associated with risk of diabetes in women with a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m². Female reproductive history has been inconsistently associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. They examined the prospective associations between aspects of a woman's reproductive history and incident diabetes. The study was published in Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism.

Researchers used data from 126,721 middle-aged women participating in cohort studies contributing to the International Collaboration for a Life Course Approach to Reproductive Health and Chronic Disease Events to assess the associations of age at menarche, age at first birth, parity, and menopausal status with incident diabetes. The researchers found that over a median follow-up of nine years, 4,073 cases of diabetes were reported.

There were non-linear associations with diabetes for age at menarche, parity, and age at first birth. Menarche at ≤10 years was associated with an 18 percent increased the risk of diabetes after adjustment for BMI, compared with menarche at age 13 years. The increased risk was observed only in women with BMI ≥25 kg/m² after stratification by BMI. Women with a hysterectomy/oophorectomy had an increased risk of diabetes (relative risk, 1.17) compared with pre-/peri-menopausal women.

This study pooled 126,721 middle?aged women's data from eight cohort studies contributing to the International Collaboration for a Life Course Approach to Reproductive Health and Chronic Disease Events (InterLACE). Associations between age at menarche, age at first birth, parity and menopausal status with incident diabetes were examined using generalized linear mixed models with binomial distribution and robust variance.

Several markers of a woman's reproductive history appear to be modestly associated with future risk of diabetes. Maintaining a normal weight in adult life may ameliorate any increase in risk conferred by early onset of menarche.

They stratified by body mass index (BMI) when there was evidence of a statistical interaction with BMI. Over a median follow?up of 9 years, 4,073 cases of diabetes were reported. Non?linear associations with diabetes were observed for age at menarche, parity, and age at first birth. Compared with menarche at age 13, menarche at ≤10 years was associated with 18% increased risk of diabetes after adjusting for BMI.

After stratifying by BMI, the increased risk was only observed in women with BMI >25 kg/m2. A U?shape relation was observed between parity and risk of diabetes. Compared with pre?/peri?menopausal women, women with a hysterectomy/oophorectomy had an increased risk of diabetes (RR 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07–1.29).