The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum leptin and arterial stiffness in Hemodialysis (HD) patients. Leptin contributes to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and leads to arterial stiffness.

Leptin plays a role in stimulating vascular inflammation, vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy, and augmenting blood pressure. The vascular damage , measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity ( cfPWV ), is recognized as an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis ( HD )

In 112 of the 126 HD patients were eligible and their biochemical data were collected for analysis. Serum leptin level was measured using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was measured by a validated tonometry system. Those have cfPWV values ??above 10 m / s are defined as the high arterial stiffness group.

Among the participants, thirty-eight of them who were in the high arterial stiffness group, had a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.002), age (p = 0.029), body mass index (BMI, p = 0.018), body fat mass (p = 0.001), hemoglobin (p = 0.040), and serum leptin levels (P <0.001).

Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that leptin (odds ratio [OR] 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.14; p <0.001), diabetes (OR 7.17, CI 1.39-37.00, p = 0.019), body fat mass ( OR 1.16; CI 1.02-1.33; p = 0.027); and hemoglobin (OR 2.11; CI 1.15-3.87; p = 0.015) were independently associated with arterial stiffness in HD patients.

Leptin was considered to be an antidiabetic adipokine . With more understanding of the function of leptin receptor in different organs, the impact of leptin is more than on energy metabolism. In our HD population, more diabetic patients were in the high arterial stiffness group.

The multivariate logistic regression analysis reported that diabetes had the strongest correlation to arterial stiffness beyond other factors. The result is consistent with the previous studies focus on non-ESRD diabetic patients.

 The current study found hemoglobin level was correlated with arterial stiffness . In our study, hyperleptinemia was positively correlated to the high CFPWV and thus was related to high arterial stiffness in HD patients.