In this study, researchers assessed that Austere and isolated have been used extensively as test beds for spaceflight to probe hazards, train crews, develop clinical protocols and countermeasures for prospective space missions. Future space exploration missions will take humans far beyond low Earth orbit and require complete crew autonomy. The ability to provide anaesthesia will be important given the expected risk of severe medical events requiring surgery.

Knowledge and experience of such procedures during space missions is currently extremely limited. Significant plans have been drawn by government space agencies and private companies for manned spaceflights beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) in the coming years, with a focus on missions to Mars.

Such flights have been termed space exploration missions (SEM). The latest National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission design called for a 900-day mission for a crew of 6, with around 6 months spent in transit, each way, and 500 days on the Mars surface.

These interplanetary missions will present great challenges to the field of space medicine. During the exploration of frontiers on Earth, human physiologic maladaptation, illness, and injury have accounted for more failures than technical or environmental factors. Beyond the immediate vicinity of Earth, there will be no possibility for the crew to return swiftly to the ground or to be assisted in real-time from Earth.

Such space exploration will entail extreme isolation and therefore total crew autonomy. Our objective is therefore to conduct a literature review about anaesthesia in space analogue environments, to further our understanding of the challenges at stake and propose some possible solutions.

They will present how various problems have been addressed in relevant settings, and discuss how this information could be applied to the unique environment of a SEM. In space, microgravity affects most physiological systems. The loss of the gravitational stimuli profoundly alters the cardiovascular system, which rapidly becomes unable to respond efficiently to challenges such as orthostatism or blood loss

Future SEMs perfectly illustrate this statement. However, medical preparedness for SEM is difficult to achieve as experimentation in space is constrained by access and operational resources, and because of the small sample size and low incidence of medical conditions.

The need to find relevant terrestrial substitutes is driven by extraordinary demands for mission success.Among medical procedures, the delivery of anaesthesia currently represents a gap in knowledge. Preparation for the management of surgical conditions is only in its infancy, but safe and efficient anaesthesia could theoretically be achievable.

Future spaceflight medical systems must permit a well-trained medical officer to autonomously provide care for the crew during the mission. Many considerations beyond the specific illness or injury will influence the outcome, including environmental factors, communications, supplies, crew preparation, skills redundancy and teamwork.