In contrast to the available scientific evidence among current professional football players, scientific evidence about the stressors that play a role in the onset of symptoms of CMD among professional football referees is not available yet.
Based on a similar study among players, a plausible assumption is that physical and psychosocial stressors such as severe injuries, surgeries, adverse life events and lower social support are likely to induce symptoms of CMD among professional football referees.
The study aim was to explore the association of physical and psychosocial stressors (severe injuries, surgeries, recent life events, social support) with one-season onset of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMDs) among European professional football referees.
An observational prospective cohort study over a follow-up period of one season (2015–2016) was conducted among professional football referees from Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Norway, Russia, Scotland and Sweden.
Based on physical and psychosocial stressors as well as symptoms of CMD, an electronic questionnaire in English and French was set up and distributed by eight football federations involved.
The prevalence of symptoms of CMD ranged from 5.9% for distress to 19.2% for eating disorders. A higher number of severe injuries and a lower degree of satisfaction about social support were significantly related to the occurrence of symptoms of CMD with an OR of 2.63 and an OR of 1.10, respectively.
A higher number of severe injuries and a lower degree on satisfaction about social support were found to be significantly associated with the onset of symptoms of CMD among European professional football referees.
Referees suffering from severe injuries were nearly three times more likely to report symptoms of anxiety and depression. Referees who reported a low satisfaction of social support were significantly more likely to report symptoms of eating disorder.